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HEATHERS 5 



THE HEATHER SOCIETY 

Registered charity No 261407 



Affiliated societies 
Nederlandse Heidevereniging 'Ericultura' 
Gesellschaft der Heidefreunde 
North American Heather Society 
HERE: Heather Enthusiasts of the Redwood Empire 
Vancouver Island Heather Society 



President 

Mr D. J. Small 

Vice-Presidents 

Mrs D. Everett Mr A. Hall Mrs A. Knight 

Mrs P. B. Lee Mr M. Abreu Mr J. Schroder 



COUNCIL 2007-2008 



Chairman 

Mr A. J. Stow 



Honorary Secretary 

Mrs J. Julian 

Mr R. Canovan 
Mr D. Edge 
Mrs S. Kay 
Dr B. E. Roberts 



Honorary Treasurer 

Mr P. L. Joyner 

Mr A. R. Collins 
Mr J. Fitz-Earle 
Mr D. E. Millis 
Mr B. Sellers 



© The authors & The Heather Society 



The Heather Society and the editors take no responsibility for the views expressed by 
authors in papers and notes published in Heathers (Yearbook ofTlie Heather Society). 



FRONT COVER: Frank Odie's garden at Cluness Cottage, Burravoe, Shetland 
Isles; photograph by Helen Harrison © (2007). 



IS 



Heathers 5 \^ 



Yearbook of The Heather Society 
2008 



third series 



Editor 
Dr E. Charles Nelson 

Assistant Editor 
B. Sellers 



ISSN 0440-5757 



The Heather Society 

c/o Tippitiwitchet Cottage, Hall Road, Outwell, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, PE14 8PE 



ii 




FRONTISPIECE: The engraving of Klokkelyng is reproduced by permission of 
Hendrieke Berg (see page 53). 



Heathers 5: 1-8 (2008). © F. Odie 

Yell for heathers 

Frank Odie 

Cluness Cottage, Burravoe, YELL, Shetland Isles, Scotland, ZE2 9AY. 



Taking off from where I sit, a crow would only have to flap its wings for 
another 25 miles before it landed on the Mukkle Flugga lighthouse - the 
most northerly structure in the British Isles. If it flew east for 180 miles it 
would alight in Bergen or, if it preferred a granite perch, the same distance 
south and it would be spoilt for choice on the rooftops of Aberdeen. There it 
could view a profusion of gardens effortlessly (or so it seems) growing just 
about any plant you care to name - from the smallest of heathers, through 
literally millions of roses, to stately trees. While it isn't impossible to grow 
these in Shetland, it's a great deal harder - and, if you want a 30ft apple or 
cherry tree, you could try designing a 40ft-high glasshouse that would 
withstand the rigours of the highest wind-regime in the country, plant a 
sapling, and wait ... 

That's not to say there aren't certain advantages being this far north and 
in the path of the Gulf Stream - the absence of serious ground-frost in the 
winter and a summer that has weeks of almost 24-hour daylight being the 
two most obvious - but most people would feel that this is more than offset 
by the salt-laden, wind-driven air and the unpredictability of the weather. 

The island I live on is for the most part blanketed with a deep cover of 
peat, with the occasional rocky outcrop. Peat has been cut as fuel for centuries 
but over the last two decades or thereby its use has dropped significantly - 
and to see people cutting and curing peat in the traditional way is now rare. 
Old, worked-out areas, where most of the surface peat has been removed, 
give rise in places to the remaining peat layer drying into a granulated form 
which can be readily scraped off and used as a mulch. Given that it is often 
a dense black and is, of course, highly acidic, it not only contrasts starkly 
with any plants but can effectively deter wind-dispersed weeds - in short 
the ideal mulch for heathers, and free for the taking. 

My site is rather more than an acre - an acre of almost completely exposed 
ground that is, so shelter was the first priority. This has been achieved by 
building wooden fences. You can't play about when the finished article has 
to cope with the odd gale in excess of lOOmph, and consequently I have four 
quite substantial fences - the tallest of which, protecting a few specimen 
trees and the heather bed planted in 1995, is 10ft high with 12ft posts sunk 



2 



into 4ft-deep holes each filled with around a ton of concrete. Parallel to the 
trees, and providing a second tier of shelter, a hedge of Fuchsia was planted, 
and the heather bed formed on an old peat stack site immediately in front. 
The site - some 55ft long - was rotovated with the addition of some earth, 
mounded in profile and semi-circular ends formed - roughly 10ft across at 
one end and 10 inches at the other. The shelter-fence and trees followed a 
year later. 

A visit to a heather-grower in Angus resulted in visual overload, and me 
asking him to pick out a selection of heathers that would provide year-round 
colour. The heathers duly arrived, and the 30 varieties (totalling 230 plants) 
were planted over the course of a week. Before the onset of winter, fencing 
posts were driven in to the bed at each end and in the middle, rope strung 
over these and then covered with a "tent" of salmon smolt netting, the plants 
underneath having been loosely draped with fleece. The next spring, 
following this mollycoddling (which they never had again), the survival rate 
was 92.7%. From then on there emerged a pattern which seems, to say the 
least of it, peculiar. A group of, say, six plants of one variety sitting between 
two other groups would thrive for perhaps two or three years then all die 
out; the plants adjacent would all continue to thrive for at least another year. 
And this happened with frustrating regularity. On the odd occasion perhaps 
one or two would still be surviving - but sickly-looking. Applying chellated 
iron had no effect. The only solution I found was to keep on replacing 
varieties, and looking now at the original planting plan I see that only 16 of 
the original 30 heathers (representing all three genera) survive today. By far 
the poorest performing genus was Calluna vulgaris. 

In a never-repeated feat of orderliness, I did a review of the situation in 
the autumn of 1998. Looking at that now I can see that of the 13 varieties of 
Calluna originally planted only two remain. Not only that but nine other 
varieties of Calluna were planted as replacements over time - and of these 
only one remains. 

The original Calluna varieties planted were 'Beoley Gold', 'Crimson Glory', 
'Flamingo', 'Fred J. Chappie', 'Glenfiddich', Tnshriach Bronze', 'Iris van 
Leyen','Jan Dekker'/John F. Letts', 'Kirby White', 'Mair's Variety', 
'Mousehole', 'Sir John Charrington', 'Spitfire', 'Spring Cream', 'Spring Torch', 
'Summer Orange', 'Sunrise', 'Tib', as well as 'Golden Carpet', 'Oxshott 
Common' and 'Velvet Fascination'. Only the last three survive. Surviving 
with them are: 

Erica cornea (winter heath) 'Foxhollow Fairy', 'Golden Starlet', Tsabell', 
'King George', 'Loughrigg', 'March Seedling', 'Porter's Red', 'Rosantha', 
'Springwood Pink', 'Springwood White', 'Westwood Yellow'. 



Top left: Heather bed - planting just 
completed in 1995. 

Top right: Heather bed - one year 
after planting - shows holes for fence. 

Lower: Heather bed - late summer 
same year, showing the 10ft high 
fence. 



4 



Erica cinerea (bell heather) 'C. D. Eason', 'Eden Valley', 'Pink Ice', 
'Velvet Night', 'Windlebrooke'. 

Erica x darleyensis (Darley Dale heath) 'Ada S. Collings', 'Jack H. Brummage', 
'Kramer's Rote'. 

Erica vagans (Cornish heath) 'Valerie Proudley' and 'Yellow John'. 
There is one St Dabeoc's heath (Daboecia cantabrica 'Atropurpurea') and eight 
plants of "Scottish White Heather" (Calluna vulgaris f. alba). 

Whether it is safe to conclude from this experience that, for whatever 
reason, Calluna cultivars are not suited to the conditions that prevail at these 
latitudes is a matter for growers with a great deal more horticultural or 
scientific knowledge than me, but a friend some 40 miles to the south on 
another island had very similar results from a smaller heather bed planted a 
year later. In his case Calluna performed marginally better than Erica carnea, 
and Erica cinerea varieties were very decisively the best performers - as they 
were, and are, with me. 

Keeping on replacing Calluna with Calluna clearly wasn't working for me, 
and one obvious solution was to replace further failures with varieties of the 
most successful heathers - so, over the intervening years, varieties of Erica cinerea 
and a further two £. x darleyensis have been planted, and it is now three years 
since the last failures and subsequent replanting. Fingers crossed! 

The tribulations of the 230 plants in the heather bed should have dictated 
to anyone with even a nodding acquaintance with the easy life to change 
allegiance to potatoes or carrots but, by the millennium, the idea of a much 
larger area, themed around peat and its workings, had taken hold and 
wouldn't let go. Rooted in a perverse way to childhood (I never did like 
working in the peats), the idea was to incorporate into a garden area what had 
been common practice with peats. Tossing the idea around with a gardening 
friend threw up ideas that were mulled over and coalesced into a plan. 

Peats for the home fires used to be carted from the hill to the homestead 
before the incursion of tractors. I could just remember that - so a cart was 
first on the list. The cart might well have to traverse a road within the peat 
hill area - so incorporate a rough road . The peats at the homestead would 
be built into a stack - include a peat stack, and so on. 

A cart was obtained by advertising in the local newspaper. The main 
parts were in good condition but the box was largely past redemption. No 
matter - the parts were all there and sufficiently intact to re-build. With the 
help of a talented carpenter friend, two blacksmiths, a firm of shot-blasters, 
an artist friend, and nearly 150 hours of sanding, filling and painting, the job 
was completed by the spring of 2003. 



5 




Planting year. Coverings removed awaiting the addition of peat - two of the 1 cubic-metre 
bags in shot. 



Work on the garden itself started in mid-June of 2001. The area - a total 
of just over 4,500sq ft which also incorporated a 60 x 27ft wildflower mini- 
meadow was given its first treatment of glyphosate. It subsequently had 
four more spot treatments. A month later my neighbour went over the entire 
area with a 5ft, tractor-driven rotovator, and then came the weary task of 
picking out stones - a task which took several weeks and involved re-doing 
parts with a smaller machine where the loosened stones had become re- 
embedded. The volume of stones that were thrown up by the rotovators 
was astonishing and even when they were used as a core for the peat stack 
and building a dyke and a cairn there was enough left over to build the 
whole lot all over again! By mid- August the cairn was progressing and by 
mid-September the dyke foundation was dug out. Early October, and a mini- 
digger carved out the road and one of the drains, and by mid-October the 
first of the weed-control fabric was laid over the de-stoned areas and covered 
over with stone chips to hold it in place, and by the end of October the 
covering of the entire heather area, to await planting the following year, 
was complete. 



6 



Early in 2002 post-holes for a 6ft-high fence were dug and the fence was 
erected in September just before the planting was completed. Before that 
there was shingle to bag up and transport from the beach for the area in 
front of the cart, the core of the peat stack to be built from stone, peats to be 
cut, cured and transported, the dyke to be built and turf cut to top it off, the 
road surfacing material to be spread, drains to be laid, the cairn to be built, 
the stone chips and the weed-control fabric to be removed, and several more 
spot-sprayings of Roundup to be done as the not- to-be-defeated weeds kept 
popping up. 

I had decided, so as not to take too much risk with the project, to plant 
the embankment area with 90 Erica carnea 'March Seedling', 75 'Springwood 
Pink' and 97 'Springwood White' - all of which had a 100% success rate in 
the heather bed. These arrived at the end of July and were planted by the 
third week of August, together with 49 'Foxhollow', and a further 32 
'Springwood White' and 31 'March Seedling' in the main area. Prior to 
planting in the main area, the ground had around 2.5m 3 of peat rotovated 
in, tamped down and marked out by drawing curved interlocking shapes 




Planting complete - only the vegetable patch and a few finishing touches left to do. 



One year on - all is completed. (The herring basket in the foreground is from 1901.) 

with a stick, then inserting short bamboo pins, spaced at the appropriate 
planting distances, with wooden spacers cut to the appropriate length. The 
main order of plants arrived on the last day of August, the intervening time 
having been taken up with completion of the stone-building jobs. 

The planting list for the main area was: 
Erica camea'Foxhollow' (49), 'Golden Starlet' (31), 'March Seedling' (31), 
'Nathalie' (41), 'Schneekuppe' (40), 'Springwood White' (36), 'Vivellii' (48)'; 

Erica cinerea 'Alba Minor' (125), 'Coccinea' (70), 'Fiddler's Gold' (81), 
'Romiley' (52), 'Stephen Davis' (33), 'Westwood Yellow' ( 119); and 

Erica x darleyensis 'Kramer's Rote' (33). 
ne thousand and fifty-one heathers - all planted in a few days between early 
August and early September with the help of friends who kindly volunteered 
their services. 

Over the intervening five years Erica camea 'March Seedling' has had 
losses of perhaps 25-30, some of these damaged by a break in the shelter 
netting; 'Springwood Pink' perhaps 10 losses; 'Springwood White' 15 or 
thereby; 'Golden Starlet' - almost all failed and have been replaced with 



8 

Calluna vulgaris 'Golden Turret' this year; E. cinerea 'Fiddler's Gold' 
likewise, and these have just been replaced with E. cornea 'Schneekuppe' and 
E. x darky ensis 'White Perfection'; E. cinerea 'Alba Minor' is struggling with 
perhaps 25 to 30 losses and the remainder have all had at least one loss with 
the sole exception of E. cornea 'Nathalie'. Percentage-wise, these losses are 
higher than the heather bed but the infernal problem of total failure cheek to 
cheek with almost total success continues. I have both dug out and replaced 
the earth where the major failures have been, added to the drainage and 
treated the embankment area for leatherjackets (which I found some evidence 
of when re-planting). But, I won't be placing any bets that the answer has 
been found! 




Four years on - spot some of the problems developing ('March Seedling' and 'Springwood 
White' on the embankment, 'Fiddler's Gold' opposite 'Springwood White'. Note also the wild 
heather on the dyke turfs alive and thriving (they are even better now). 



Heathers 5: 9-16 (2008). ©J. Griffiths 

A heather hybridizer's Yorkshire garden 

John Griffiths 

9 Ashlea Close, Garforth, LEEDS, West Yorkshire LS25 1JX. 

On occasion I have been asked about my garden and what part it has played 
in my heather hybridizing experiments, so I thought a short account of how 
the garden developed and the sorts of plants I grow might be of interest to 
members. Many Society members will have gardens of much greater aesthetic 
value than mine, so I lay no claims to anything of horticultural excellence. 
The garden was developed on something of a shoestring, and no doubt my 
account will strike a few chords with those of you who faced similar financial 
restraints when establishing their first garden. 

My wife, Valerie, and I acquired the garden in 1970 when we moved to 
Yorkshire and purchased our first (and to date only) house. This was located 
in a typical newish open-plan housing estate, and had an unusually large 
garden for the time (even more unusual by present-day standards), covering 




Figure 1. After 30 years, laurels and Leyland cypresses still provide reliable and trouble-free 
boundary hedging for the garden. 



10 



just under one third of an acre. Although this was to be our first garden, we 
already knew that we would be keen gardeners given the chance, and the 
size of the garden was certainly one of the major factors in choosing the 
house. My gardening inexperience meant that I had given no real thought to 
what sort of plants might thrive in this plot, and looking back I can see that 
I was very fortunate in acquiring by chance a plot with good quality, 
reasonably well drained soil, and with a slightly acid pH - in other words, a 
soil ideal for growing any species of heather. The garden had its problems, 
and we found that it actually occupied one of the lowest points in the area 
and some parts could become heavily water-logged in very wet weather. It 
was also something of a frost pocket, which caused me many problems with 
early-flowering rhododendrons and other shrubs. However, with increasing 
maturity of protective shrubs and favourable climate change, this problem 
has now largely disappeared. 

When we first arrived, the garden was basically a flat, lawned area, encircled 
by what seemed to be endless wooden-panel fencing, with a few strategically 
placed ornamental trees and shrubs. Our first priorities were therefore to cover 
up the fencing with suitable hedging, and to create more interest in the garden, 
in the form of paths, flower-beds, rockeries and a pond. Though not appreciated 
at the time, one of the great advantages of starting a garden with a very limited 
budget is the forced acquisition of a wide range of skills, and as a young family 
with several commitments, we certainly had to watch the pennies. Compost- 
making and propagation marked the start of our steep learning curve. Good, 
solid hedging around the perimeter was achieved within five years, starting 
with a modest number of laurels and Leyland cypresses (X Cupressocyparis 
leylandii) stock-plants and propagating these from cuttings. After 30 years, both 
types of hedging are still intact and doing their job (Figure 1). Despite its bad 
press, I have found "Leylandii" to make an excellent hedge if looked after 
properly, that is, cut well back once a year. I will admit that for the first ten 
years growth will be prodigious and cutting twice a year might be needed, but 
eventually its growing energy will be dispersed through so many growing tips 
that only a few inches will be put on each season, and clipping once a year is 
plenty and will keep it looking neat and tidy for a full twelve months, unlike 
other less vigorous hedging plants such as privet. Once established, the hedging 
helped a lot with frost problems, and also provided a useful wind break in 
what was quite a windy area. 

Because of pressures of work, the prime object was to develop a garden 
with all-year-round interest and colour, requiring the minimum of time and 
effort to keep in good order. How fortunate we were, that in the 1970s heathers 
and dwarf conifers were still popular, and our thinking was soon directed 



11 




Figure 2. The water-garden in early summer, some thirty years on. 



towards these for our foundation planting. Sad to think that had more recent 
gardening fashions predominated then, we might now be looking forlornly 
at a flooded "Mediterranean" garden, or a weed-infested prairie planting, 
complete with decaying decking and peeling blue-painted fencing. Modern, 
fashion-driven gardening hype has a lot to answer for! 

In those first few years, progress was relatively slow due to lack of time, 
but gradually more beds were dug and planted up. The pond provided useful 
soil for the rockeries, and the rock pond-edging and waterfall construction 
was tackled by using concrete moulded into natural rock formations and 
textures. This technique took a little perfecting, but the result was well worth 
the effort, and 25 years on, all the structures are still intact and look as though 
they have been in place for ever (Figure 2). In the case of the rockeries, I was 
able to find a recently worked-out quarry and after some phone calls I was 
given permission to take away what rocks I could find, provided I tipped 
the gatekeeper adequately. For the price of a fiver and a hired van I was able 
to select all the rocks I needed and collect them in three or four trips. Although 
the pond did provide some soil for the rockeries, this was not enough for 
our needs and we had to look elsewhere. The answer to our prayers seemed to 
come in the form of an advertisement in our local press, offering free top-soil 



12 



from a sugar-beet processing plant. I immediately ordered ten tons of this, 
which soon arrived by lorry and I watched it being dumped on our driveway 
with growing apprehension. Shifting this into the back garden was a priority, 
as we could hardly get into the house, let alone get the car onto the drive. 
However, a prodigious effort of wheelbarrowing, with the welcome assistance 
of willing neighbours, eventually moved it, and my muscles still ache to think 
about it. Unfortunately the soil proved to be full of lime and extremely alkaline, 
and where it was to be used for heathers I had to resort to liberal application of 
strong sulphuric acid to bring the pH down. Using nothing more than a plastic 
watering can, this proved quite an experience, and with all the fizzing, bubbling 
and splashing, this was not a job for the faint-hearted. However, I eventually 
reached an acceptable pH without personal injury, and the rockeries were finally 
completed by about 1978 and were planted up on the various levels with alpines 
and winter-flowering heathers. The latter were given greatest prominence, 
covering about five square metres on the lowest level, directly facing the house. 
The chosen cultivars were Erica carnea 'King George', 'Springwood White', 
'December Red', 'Vivellii' and 'Myretoun Ruby', and with the exception of 
'Vivellii' which seemed not too fond of our Yorkshire weather, these proved to 
be an ideal choice, and have given us welcome colour unfailingly every winter 
for 30 years, with no more attention than a good clipping every May. Most of 
the original plants still survive, and despite 30 years of continuous growth, 
none have strayed outside their allotted space. These early successes with 
E. carnea made me realise the potential of heathers and I soon became hooked. 
Over the next five years I sourced numerous hardy species and hybrids, and 
planted these in various locations. 

Strangely, Calluna vulgaris has been the least successful with me, and 
although the plants establish and grow well, they have generally required 
the most frequent replacement (every four or five years). Even with severe 
pruning, the flower spikes seemed to diminish in length every year as the 
plants themselves became larger and leggier. Nevertheless, Calluna cultivars 
will always earn their keep, thanks to their wonderful range of colours and 
flower forms, and their amenability to propagation. 

Erica vagans cultivars have proved much more permanent, and have kept 
up their flowering performance with increasing age almost as well as 
the E. carnea clones. However, they are somewhat harder to keep in check, 
and do eventually outgrow their allocated areas. I have even had to replace 
plants of the slow-growing E. vagans 'Valerie Proudley' after about 20 years 
because of excessive size. 

Other heathers which have retained their floriferousness and reasonably 
restricted size (with annual pruning) for 20 years or more are various 



13 



Erica x darleyensis cultivars, E. terminalis 'Thelma Woolner', E. lusitanica 
(the species), E x veitchii 'Exeter' and 'Gold Tips', E. x williamsii and 
Daboecia x scotica 'William Buchanan'. 

Plants which I would never be without, but which do require replacing 
every five years or so are various cultivars of Erica tetralix, E. cinerea, E. ciliaris, 
E. x watsonii, E. x stuartii and E. erigena. For me, the most frustrating species 
to keep satisfactorily for more than three or four years has proved to be 
£. umbellata, and I must confess that I do not know the answer to this. 

After my seemingly immortal Erica cornea plants, the tree heaths E. x veitchii 
and E. lusitanica are my favourites, as they have provided invaluable, tidy 
backdrops at key points in the garden, helping to divide the garden up, and 
at the same time providing beautiful, massed flower-cover in spring. They 
also have the bonus of delightful fragrance. The E. x veitchii hybrids proved 
perfectly hardy from the word go, but the harsh winters of the '70s always 
proved too much for E. lusitanica and I was unable to establish plants until 
David McClintock kindly provided me with cutting material from plants that 
had naturalised themselves in the south of England. These were propagated, 
and have since proved perfectly hardy with me, still flowering vigorously every 
spring with never any signs of frost damage to the leaves or stems. 

My interest in heathers expanded into acid-loving plants in general, and 
the family Ericaceae in particular. For the garden-lover, plantsman and 
botanist alike, the Ericaceae have an incredible amount to offer, and it would 
be a formidable challenge for anyone to collect just one example of each 
genus (currently standing at 124 genera, I believe). These 124 genera truly 
range from A to Z (from Andromeda to Zenobia), encompassing almost any 
shape and size of plant one could wish for. For example, at one extreme 
there is the tiny, Arctic moss heather Harrimanella hypnoides (formerly 
Cassiope) which I managed to keep outside for a few years, and at the other 
extreme there are large trees, such as Oxydendron arboreum which can reach 
50ft in height (my own, grown from seed, stands at 10ft after 15 years). 

For a few years I set about collecting as many examples of the Ericaceae 
as I could, already having, of course, Calluna, Erica, Daboecia and Rhododendron 
to start my collection. The first obvious additions were the other heath-type 
genera Andromeda, Cassiope, Pltyllodoce and Bruckenthalia (now Erica), and 
these were followed quickly by such familiar and readily available shrubs 
as Pieris, Enkianthus, Gaultheria and Vaccinium, and the strawberry tree, 
Arbutus unedo. However, thereafter other genera became increasingly difficult 
to find, and proved very challenging, but at one stage I did manage to put 
together a collection of 43 genera. Alas, not all proved to be as undemanding 
as the heathers, and today only a small percentage of these remain. For those 



14 




Figure 3. A mixed planting of heathers among blueberries in early September (left Erica x watsonii 
'Claire Elise'; right E. cornea 'Ann Sparkes'). 



blessed with acid soil, I can recommend trying various species of Enkianthus 
(flowers and autumn colour), Kalmia (unusually attractive flowers), Lyonia 
(flowers and autumn colour), Vaccinium and Gaultheria (foliage and berries) 
and Zenobia pulverulenta (for its unusual silvery-green foliage and scented, 
pure white flowers). My all-time favourites are the blueberries (Vaccinium) 
(Figure 3), which provide everything one could want in a shrub: neatness 
with minimal pruning, abundant flowers, intense autumn colour, and of course 
attractive, edible berries, which are both extremely good for you and delicious. 

Having soon become a member of The Heather Society in those early 
days, I was intrigued to read the article written by veteran member Anne 
Parris in the 1976 Yearbook - Preliminary note on a cross between Erica erigena 
and E. cornea - and her follow-up article in 1977. Her comments inspired me 
to carry out my own hybridization experiments, and I wrote to (then) Vice- 
President David McClintock for advice. His response was extremely 
encouraging, and it was largely due to him that in the next few years I 
persevered with my experiments and did not give up after the first few 
setbacks. My first attempts used pot plants in a cold greenhouse, but results 
were disappointing, so I then used more mature plants in the garden. The 



15 

greatest difficulty was not the pollination stage but keeping bees away from 
the pollinated flowers so that the results were not compromised. I hit on the 
idea of using small muslin "tents" which could be placed over the whole plant 
and staked to the soil, and for a while the heather beds looked most peculiar 
with these dotted about the place. However it was impossible to plug all the 
gaps, and bees are perhaps the most persistent of all insects, so more often than 
not I would find bees trapped inside the tents, having had exclusive access to 
all my carefully pollinated flowers. The eventual solution was to use small 
mesh bags that fitted over each flower stem, and to seal these tightly to the 
stem with a wire tie. Although less obtrusive than the tents, some plants could 
have as many as ten of these bags on them at any one time. 

After a few years I was getting enough successes with my crosses to cause 
problems accommodating and growing on the numerous resultant seedlings. 
It generally took two to three years to be able to assess the hybrid character and 
garden value of a plant. As a result I decided to build a 1x4 metre cold frame 
out of breeze-blocks, so that the more important seedlings could be lined out 
and grown under exposed conditions, with some protection from wind and 
frost (Figure 4). The frame covers were only used in extremely cold weather. 
Hybrids produced successfully at this time included Erica x griffithsii 
'Valerie Griffiths' (named after my wife) and 'Ashlea Gold' (named after 
our road) (Figure 5), E. x williamsii 'Gold Button', E. x garforthensis 'Craig' 
(my first grandson), and E x watsonii 'Claire Elise' (my daughter). Interest- 




Figure 4. Hybrid seedling trials in the cold frame, 1985. The original Erica x griffithsii seedlings 
from which 'Valerie Griffiths' was selected can be seen at the rear. 



16 



■ — — 




Figure 5. The mixed heather, maple, conifer and dwarf rhododendron beds in May, with 
'Erica x griffithsii 'Ashlea Gold' in the foreground. 



ingly, 'Valerie Griffiths' does not provide such a rich yellow colour on my 
soil as 'Ashlea Gold', and so I have found myself becoming increasingly 
more attracted to her rival in recent years. 

Today the garden contains more mixed planting than it used to, and 
herbaceous perennials, spring- and summer-flowering bulbs, and climbers 
are also to be found in most beds. However, heathers, rhododendrons, 
conifers and small shrubs still dominate the scene. Some of these have 
outgrown their space and usefulness, and are gradually being replaced. The 
pond with its synthetic rockwork has stood the test of time and looks very 
natural, and as the ravages of herons have at last been eliminated (thanks to 
plastic netting), the fish population is burgeoning and will soon need thinning 
out. The seedling frame has gone, and the netted heather plants are now 
rarely seen, but the real lasting memories of my hybridization experiments 
are the plants themselves, examples of which are dotted about the garden as 
pleasant reminders of the trials, tribulations, and (very occasionally) successes 
of the amateur hybridizer. 



Heathers 5: 17-25 (2008). © A. Hall 

Erica maderensis in England 

Allen Hall 

10 Upper Green, Nanpantan, LOUGHBOROUGH, LE11 3SG. 

Erica maderensis is a native of the island of Madeira and grows nowhere else 
in the wild. On Madeira, it frequents the highest ground, typically on the 
tops of mountains. E. maderensis is rarely grown in cultivation and so is one 
of those heathers that is unfamiliar even to heather enthusiasts. For these 
reasons, the plant has been little observed and written about. This article is 
about my experience of growing E. maderensis in England and may to some 
small extent help redress this situation. 

In the mid- to late 1980s my interest in heather gardening spilled over 
into a curiosity about heathers themselves and I wanted to know more about 




Figure 1. Erica maderensis on Pico do Ariero, Madeira, December 2006, a short walk from the 
cafe at the end of the road. The shrubs in the background are also E. maderensis, but this one 
was the most compact and shapely. (© E. C. Nelson) 



18 



heathers on the fringes of the hardy species of northern Europe that were 
rarely if ever cultivated. So I sought to acquire some of these plants, 
Erica maderensis among them. Plants of these species can't be obtained on 
the market. However, one of the unsung advantages of membership of The 
Heather Society is that rarities can be obtained through the liberality of fellow 
members. Heathers that are worthless to horticulturists, yet priceless to 
enthusiasts, are obtained without cost from one's fellows. 

A CLONE FROM AN EXPEDITION IN 1974 

Dr (now Professor) John Griffiths generously sent me a rooted cutting of 
Erica maderensis in 1989. This was a clone collected by Don Richards and 
David McClintock in Madeira in 1974. Don Richards subsequently wrote 
about the expedition in the Yearbook of The Heather Society. 1 He reported that 

... on the bleak top of Pico do Ariero E. maderensis is quite common as 
tight cushions or mats draping the rocks. Some of these plants are ancient 
with a main stem thicker than one's thumb and close pressed to the rock 
up to 6 feet (1.83 metres) across. ... E. maderensis survived on the bleak, 
rocky mountain tops where practically nothing else could find a living. 

Lower down they saw bushy plants perhaps 1— 2ft (0.3-0.6m) tall. The colour 
of flowers was "near white to fawny or puplish pink, much like a paler 
version of E terminalis." Writing in 1981 about the same expedition, David 
McClintock 2 said that all but the youngest plants had thick, stout stems. He 
stated that the colour of the flowers was mauve - H2. However, one plant 
had flowers with colours ranging from deep rose pink to near white. 

A more recent botanical explorer was Dr Charles Nelson, and he has 
kindly provided a photograph to use with this article (Figure 1). In 2003, 
Dr Nelson gave a talk 3 to the East Midlands Group of The Heather Society 
in which he showed a number of slides of Erica maderensis. One of these 
showed a woody plant fully 3m long hanging down a mountain side. 

Seed from the Botanical Gardens in Madeira 

The 1999 Heather Society conference at Falmouth was addressed by Dr Judy 
Rose of the Horticultural Research Institution, East Mailing, Kent. Dr Rose 
was engaged in research in which heathers were to feature. After her lecture 
I discovered that she was seeking some plants to use in her research, in 
particular Erica bocquetii and E. maderensis. Subsequently I sent her some 
plants of both species. Later, Dr Rose obtained some E. maderensis seed from 



19 



a contact at the Madeira Botanical Gardens and she had a surplus which she 
sent me as thanks for the plants I had given to her. 

The seed from the Botanical Garden was dated 1998. 1 obtained, and 
sowed, my share in May 2000 and raised many fine plants, most of which 
I gave to fellow members of the Society, including John Griffiths and 
David Small, our current President, who has also assisted me with my 
collection of rare heathers over the years. I kept a number myself until I 
was satisfied that the plants had similar flowers and forms to each other 
and to the Richards /McClintock clone. I now have clones from two 
different sources. 

Hardiness 

When I received my first plant in 1989, David McClintock advised me that 
the species was hardy. Erica maderensis, after all, experiences windy conditions 
in its native clime and is sometimes covered with snow. Moreover, Don 
Richards could grow the species in his garden in Eskdale, Cumbria. David 
himself grew E. maderensis outside at his home, Bracken Hill, Piatt, in Kent 
for a number of years, as he mentioned in his article on the bell heather of 
Madeira. 2 He commented: "here it does not thrive or make the floriferous 
display to be seen in the climate of Madeira." 




Figure 2. Erica maderensis; plant growing Figure 3. Erica maderensis; plant growing in 19- 
outside in sheltered spot, Nanpantan 2007. litre container, Nanpantan 2007. 



When I had accumulated a number of plants, I conducted my own 
experiment in my Surrey garden and later repeated it in Loughborough. 4 In 
both trials/the plants were cut to the ground by winter frosts and fragile 



20 



spring recoveries were not sustained. A mature plant was later installed in a 
concrete container, by the south wall of the house and sheltered from the 
east by a water-butt. This has survived, and indeed flourished, for several 
years (Figure 2). Dr Nelson saw this plant recently and thought it reminiscent 
of those he has seen growing in the wild on Pico de Ariero. 

My conclusion is that Erica maderensis might be hardy in milder, western 
parts of the country but is on the fringes of hardiness in middle and eastern 
England. In these places, the species needs some protection in the winter 
either by careful selection of site, protection in a cold glasshouse, or, as 
I prefer, in a heated glasshouse. 

Cultivation in England 

I keep stock plants in a glasshouse from mid-September to mid-May. 5 The 
glasshouse has an electric fan-heater thermostatically controlled to prevent 
the ambient temperature falling below +5°C. Good ventilation is important 
and the glasshouse is liberally equipped with automatically operated, and 
hand-worked, ventilators. On winter nights the ventilators have to be closed 
but they are opened during the day even if it is cold, providing the 
temperature does not drop below freezing. 

Erica maderensis thrives when well watered. I water the plants every day 
except in the winter months when frequency and quantities of water are 
reduced to suit individual needs - as informed by experience. In some weeks 
at the turn of the year, watering once a week is enough. 

During the summer, my Erica maderensis plants are put in a sheltered 
place outside and they enjoy their weeks in the sun. 

I neglected to re-pot one of my plants for a number years but when I came 
eventually to re-pot it, I found no trace of the root ball being pot-bound. The 
plant, it seems, had accommodated itself to its conditions. This prompts me 
to wonder if in the wild Erica maderensis has to live in cracks and hollows in 
the rocks that contain little soil? 

Compost 

I use a compost mix of half moss peat and half Perlite. 6 This compost is light, 
free-draining and acidic. Both components are water-retentive. To this 
mixture is added John Innes base fertiliser at the rate of 6.25ml per litre 
(lfl oz per gallon). During the summer months, I give the plants feeds of 
liquid ericaceous fertiliser once a month. 

I have not explored whether Erica maderensis might grow in a neutral or 
alkaline soil. 



21 



Propagation 

I find that Erica maderensis is easier to grow from seed than from cuttings. 
Each flower is capable of producing many seeds and early autumn 7 is a good 
time to collect them (Figure 8). I use similar techniques to those described by 
Barry Sellers 7 but confess that I do not take so many pains. I use the same 
peat/Perlite compost with a 3mm layer of horticultural grade sand on top. 
The seed is mixed with a little of the same sand and sprinkled on top. As 
Barry advised 7 , in his authoritative article, the compost is not allowed to dry 
out. The seed typically germinates in three to five weeks after sowing. 

Erica maderensis is a very woody plant but the stems throw slender, green 
side-shoots of up to about 2.5cm (lin) long (Figure 4). These can be used for 
cutting material but care has to be used in selecting them because they harden 
quickly and the best cutting material has half-ripe wood. I root them in a 
peat/Perlite mix with a thin layer of horticultural sand on the surface. The 
cuttings are placed in a cold frame and the strike rate I obtain is reasonable. 

Size of plants in cultivation 

Currently, I have four plants, two of the Richards / McClintock clone, and two 
from seeds obtained in 2000 from the Madeira Botanic Garden via Dr Rose. 

One seedling, from the seed sown in May 2000, is now growing in a 
19-litre (4-gallon) plastic container. It has a spread of 97cm (38in) and reached 
a height above the rim of the container of 45cm (18in). However, the nature 
of the plant is to form a hummock and it trails 27cm (10.5in) over the side of 
the container, reaching the ground. It has a single woody main stem that is 
2.2cm in diameter - as thick as my thumb in fact (Figure 3). Erica seedlings 
take a long time to develop so I reckon that the main growth of the plant has 
occurred since around May 2001, in other words within six years. 

A second, older plant of the Richards / McClintock clone has a single main 
stem 2.5cm in diameter (lin), while a third has seven stems emerging from 
the compost and the diameter of these is 10-1 3mm (<0.5in). These dimensions 
accord with David McClintock' s 2 and Don Richards' s 1 observations of plants 
in the wild. 

General description 

Erica maderensis is a distinctive plant with tough, woody stems and branches 
that are not brittle. It puts out short, stubby twigs which form green side- 
shoots (Figure 4). The twigs soon mature and harden. The plants 
characteristically form dense hummocks around their roots or mould 



22 




1 I 

10 centimetres 



Figure 4. Erica maderensis; a typical side-shoot. 




Figure 5. Erica maderensis; close- Figure 6. Erica maderensis; 

up of a single flower. flower with corolla removed. 



23 




Figure 7. Erica maderensis; plant in full flower, Nanpantan 2007. 



themselves to their immediate environment and this habit may be a response 
to the strong, Atlantic winds that sweep its mountain homeland. 

In my Leicestershire garden, the plants flower in June and July - 
depending on their particular locations - and sometimes flowers appear in 
August or even September. 

My plants produce very pale pink flowers (Figure 6). From a distance, 
the flowers appear white and when in full flower a plant can look attractive 
(Figure 5). However, I do not regard it as a good garden plant, lack of 
hardiness aside. 



24 




i l 

1 millimetre 



Figure 8. Erica maderensis; seeds. 

In his talk to the East Midlands Group in 2003 3 , Dr Nelson pointed out 
that the valves of the fruits are woody (Figure 9). The fruits persist for a long 
time after the seed has been released and the valves open and close according 
to humidity (like a pine cone). 

David McClintock raised the question of whether Erica maderensis should 
continue to be regarded as a separate species 2 or as a subspecies of E. cinerea. 
He concluded that its specific status should be retained but said that it would 
be helpful if someone could attempt to cross the two species. Professor 
Griffiths was present at the East Midlands Group meeting in October 2003 
and said that he had crossed the two several times, using E. maderensis as the 
seed parent. 



25 



4 




Figure 9. Erica maderensis in fruit; a shrub photographed at Pico do Ariero, Madeira in December 
2006. (© E. C. Nelson) 



References 

1 D. A. Richards, 1976. Mostly Erica maderensis and Daboecia azorica. Yearbook of The 

Heather Society 2 (5): 15-20. 

2 D. McClintock, 1981. The bell heather of Madeira. Yearbook of The Heather Society 2 

(10): 48-50. 

3 Report on a talk on "Heathers of the Atlantic Islands" given by Dr E. C. Nelson to 

the East Midlands Group October 2003. Bulletin of The Heather Society 6 (10: 
Autumn): 13-14. 2003. 

4 A. Hall, 2002. The hardiness of some of the less familiar heathers in the English 

Midlands. Yearbook of The Heather Society 2002: 37-42. 

5 A. Hall, 1999. Heathers in the glasshouse. Yearbook of The Heather Society 1999: 11- 

21. 

6 G. Yates, 1978. Pocket guide to heather gardening. Tabramhill Gardens, 
Far Sawrey. 

7 B. Sellers, 1999. Propagation of heather from seed. Yearbook of The Heather Society 

1999:23-29. 



Heathers 5: 26-28 (2008). © S. Kay 

Visiting the African Queen - with the assistance of satellites 

Susie Kay 

Lettergesh, Renvyle, County Galway, IRELAND. 

We awoke to an azure sky and a gentle breeze, which promised a wonderful 
day for our trek to find the queen of heathers. 

Ted Oliver and Ross Turner, the gurus of the Erica world had joined us in 
a rented cottage in the Cederberg Mountains and were to take us to find this 
very special lady. All aboard Ted's trusty Landrover for the 70km drive to 
an area just south of a small hamlet called "Op-de-Berg". The place we were 
going to is known as "Rocklands", and our intention was to climb almost to 
the top of North Rockland Peak; this is the opposite side of the valley where 
The Heather Society tour went to view Erica thunbergii in 2003. 

We drove through the fruit farm and up a very overgrown track to the 
base of the mountain. Booted and creamed up, with supplies of food and 
water we started to climb the steep kloof. Our first Erica was E. leucantha, the 
small bushes completely covered with pale lemon flowers, alongside E. cristiflora 
giving the pink hues that Europeans are more used to seeing. 

It was a case of up, and up, and 
up, but with so much to see that 
we didn't really notice the steep 
climb. Just before cresting the 
skyline we found ourselves waist- 
high in a field of Erica monsoniana. 
A stop for more photos and 
exclamations of how sturtning it was. 

After the first main ascent we 
moved across a small plateau 
bounded by extraordinary rock 
formations, some of which looked 
extremely precarious. After 
wandering around and through and 
over and under these incredible 
rocks, Ross went ahead to check the 
location - the wonders of GPS! 

There was a sudden shout of 
"Eureka" echoing round the 
mountains, and we moved as fast 




27 




"Eureka!": the Kays at the court of the Queen of African Heathers. (© E. G. H. Oliver.) 



as the terrain would allow towards the call. 

Spread just below us was the fabulous sight of Erica junonia lifting her 
coral tubes to the sky. A few yards further away was a bigger population 
with more flowers completely open. It certainly was an entrancing view, 
with E. cristiflora in the background making the salmon colour of Juno's heath 
seem even more bold. 

A good half hour was spent admiring the queen, and the paparazzi clicked 
away from all angles. Ross regaled us with tales of how he discovered this 
particular population whilst camping out in the area and heather-hunting. 
There is another colony a bit further south in the Skurweberg Range, but it is 
not as easy to reach, being at about 1,800m altitude, our flowers being at a 
mere 1,600m (5,250 ft). 

Having enjoyed the spectacle, it was time to head home and descend the 
kloof. There are no trails in to these mountains, one just picks the easiest 
route. As one gets older, the coming down is harder than the going up and 
this old lady was rather slow. Peering down into the precipitous valley, I found 
it hard to believe we had just "strolled" up, botanizing all the way. After 



28 




Erica junonia on North Rockland Peak (© E. G. H. Oliver). 

about two hours we did reach the bottom with no mishaps and a real feeling 
of exhilaration. Only a handful of people have ever seen this particular 
population, so this made the day very special. 

A few flowers had been picked to show to the manager of the fruit farm 
and the owners of the cottage which we were renting. However, it became 
apparent that we had an extra guest staying in our cottage who was also 
very interested in Erica junonia. We were woken early the next morning by 
an anguished howl from Ross. A little mousey gerbil, who had decided to 
keep Ross company for the night, had eaten all the precious E. junonia flowers, 
leaving just a few crumbs for Ross to examine with his microscope. 

During that day we saw 21 species of Cape heaths and once again I have 
to thank The Heather Society for taking me to South Africa in the first place. 
My biggest thanks must be for the continuing friendship of Ted and his 
forbearance of my total lack of knowledge, although I did recognise one 
lonely plant of Erica plukenetii. I also thank Ross for his total commitment to 
Erica and his delight in spending time in the mountains. Without this pair of 
enthusiastic and expert botanists, there would never have been an 
opportunity for this particular expedition the see 'The Queen of Heathers". 



Heathers 5: 29-38 (2008). © E. M. T. Wulff 



The creation of a public heather garden: Cottage Grove 
Community Hospital, Oregon, U. S. A. 

Ella May T. Wulff 

2299 Wooded Knolls Drive, Philomath, Oregon, USA 



In early 2004, Alan Williams, Facilities Director of the newly constructed 
Community Hospital in Cottage Grove, Oregon, contacted me about planting 
heathers on the hospital grounds. He grows heathers in his own garden and 
thought that they might be an attractive solution for a problem slope between 
the sidewalk and a low spot that was to serve as a catchment basin for run- 
off water during western Oregon's winter rains. Photographs that Alan sent 
me showed a long stretch of unkempt grass and tall weeds, difficult to mow 
because of the slope, and some mature deciduous trees in the sunken 
catchment area: a challenge. 

I consulted members of the Oregon Heather Society (OHS) about taking 
on this project, and we offered to design and plant a heather garden for the 
hospital - provided that the hospital took care of site preparation, including 
weed removal and installation of an irrigation system, and paid for the 
heather plants, which we would obtain at wholesale cost. The hospital 
grounds committee accepted our offer, and work on the site began that summer. 

Soil preparation was relatively simple. The site is blessed with a sandy 
loam spoiled only by the odd chunk of clay and a scattering of rounded 
river rocks, and it is naturally acidic like most other soils west of the Cascade 
Mountains. The ground was graded to minimize and even out the slope, 
and where the slope was steepest, in the narrow spot by the trees, a low 
retaining wall was constructed to produce a more gently sloping planting 
bed above it. A gravel path running the length of the garden divides it into 
manageable planting areas and enables visitors to enter the garden rather 
than just look at it from the sidewalk that forms the eastern boundary. Because 
the path runs immediately below the retaining wall, the wall has become a 
favourite place for staff to sit during fine weather. But I get ahead of myself. 

I undertook the task of designing the garden. Cottage Grove is located 
just to the south of the Willamette Valley, at an elevation of about 600ft (183m) 
above sea level, in United States Department of Agriculture Cold Hardiness 
Zone 8, with average annual minimum temperatures between 10° and 20°F 



30 



(-12° to -7°C): we should be able to grow any of the hardy heathers here. 
The site was much larger than my own garden - more than 210ft (64m) long 
and varying in width from 5ft to 45ft (±1.5-14m). As a public garden, it 
would need the impact produced by large groupings of individual cultivars, 
as opposed to the small groupings in my "collector's garden", yet there should 
be diversity in colour and form, and colour interest throughout the year. 

Early on, I decided that there would be a path within the garden, running 
from the service entrance road at the southern end to the emergency room 
driveway at the northern. The widest part of the garden, nearest the 
emergency room, needed an additional path to allow access for gardeners. 
Near the entrance to the service road and parallel to it is a large wooden 
sign, and not far from that is a metal box for access to the hospital's 
underground power and communications networks. Both of these had to be 
considered during the design process. 

Also playing a large part in the design were the trees in the catchment 
area that forms part of the western boundary of the garden, remnants of the 
site's original riverine vegetation. (The hospital is close to the Row River, a 
tributary of the region's dominant Willamette River.) The trees make a natural 
backdrop for the garden, and they needed to be treated as part of the garden. 
They would be thinned and their lower limbs removed to allow light to 
reach the heathers. Their shade would reduce flowering in the nearest 
heathers but would also give protection from hot summer afternoon sun. 
After studying the shade pattern cast by the trees in summer, I decided to 
put Calluna vulgaris 'Beoley Gold' and Erica ciliaris 'Aurea' in the shadiest 
spot, so that their foliage would not burn during summer days that can 
occasionally exceed 100°F (38°C). E. tetralix 'Swedish Yellow' would be 
planted along the edge of the catchment area, where it, too, would receive 
afternoon shade. 




Figure 1. Schematic plan of the heather garden (shaded yellow); each grid block represents 100 
square feet. 



31 




Figure 2. Cottage Grove Community Hospital heather garden in late August 2006. From this 
viewpoint, you cannot see the retaining wall because of the curve in the path, but the bright 
foliage of Erica tetralix 'Swedish Yellow' is clearly visible under the ash. Some very happy 
plants of E. mackayana 'Shining Light' are in front of the left-hand conifer, with Calluna vulgaris 
'Schurig's Sensation' behind it. Heathers in the foreground are C. vulgaris 'Tib', 'Shining Light' 
and E. cinerea 'Alba Minor'. The vigorous central grouping is 'Kerstin'. In the upper left, nearly 
behind the large tree, is E. arborea var. alpina. 

Fortunately, most of the site is sunny, which meant that the only limit on 
cultivar selection was availability. There are several specialist heather 
nurseries in Oregon, and they were able to supply many of the specified 
plants. Some OHS members donated plants they had propagated in their 
own gardens, and we ordered the more difficult-to-obtain cultivars from a 
heather nursery in a neighbouring state. 

The creation of this garden provided an opportunity to demonstrate how 
effectively heathers can be used in the landscape. One of the reasons for 
choosing particular cultivars was our desire as a heather society to show the 
public that there are many more kinds of heather than the limited range 
available in garden centres and used by most landscape gardeners. 
Consequently, in addition to ensuring that there were tall heathers, short 



32 



heathers, those of upright habit and sprawlers, we selected a wide range of 
species and hybrids. There are now heathers blooming in this garden every 
month of the year. Low-growing rhododendrons planted under the trees 
add colour in late spring when the fewest heathers are in flower. 

The new Community Hospital in Cottage Grove was made possible 
through major fund-raising efforts and donations from the local community, 
which had been facing the imminent closure of its only hospital when Peace 
Health (a Catholic health care system serving communities throughout the 
Pacific Northwest under local lay leadership) came to the rescue. Peace 
Health, founded in 1936 by the Sisters of St Joseph of Peace, an order started 
by an Irish nun, owns and operates the hospital. One of the nursing sisters at 
the hospital is Irish, and she was thrilled to learn that there was to be a 
heather garden. I had fun choosing cultivars with names that have a 
connection to either Ireland, nursing, or the Catholic faith, however remote 
or unintended that connection. Consequently, the garden now contains Calluna 
'Caleb Threlkeld' and 'Sister Anne', Erica cinerea 'Providence', E. erigena 'Irish 
Dusk', E. x stuartii 'Irish Lemon', E. vagans 'St Keverne', and £. x watsonii 'Mary'. 
That these are also outstanding cultivars is a happy coincidence. 




Figure 3. A blue dwarf conifer and brown sedges add variation in form, colour and texture to 
the heather garden, photographed in October 2007. Calluna vulgaris 'Schurig's Sensation' is in 
the foreground; the tip of the conifer points to Erica x griffithsii 'Jacqueline'. 



Tree heaths - Erica australis, E. arborea var. alpina and'Estrella Gold', and 
E. erigena 'Maxima' - used as stand-alone specimens punctuate the 
predominantly low vegetation, and a loose grouping of three columnar 
"dwarf" conifers provides additional interest. Because maintenance of open 
sightlines for the service road and emergency entrance is essential, the 
conifers were planted near the centre of this elongated garden. 

I had been so pleased with the effect of sedges and grasses in my own 
garden that I included several in the hospital garden. The brown New 



33 



Zealand sedge Carex flagellifera grows into a fountain about 4ft (±lm) in 
diameter and 2ft (0.6m) high. C. buchananii is similar in colour and height 
but narrower and much more upright. The small blue grass Festuca glauca 
was not actually drawn on the garden plan, but seedlings from my garden 
were scattered randomly throughout the hospital garden after the heathers 
were planted. We warned Alan Williams that we had planted them, so he 
wouldn't remove them, thinking that they were weeds. 

September is the month when western Oregon's summer drought begins 
to give way to the rains of winter, although most September days have fine 
weather. The date chosen to plant the garden, 11 September 2004, turned 
out to be one of the few rainy days that month. Nevertheless, eleven OHS 
members assembled at the hospital to plant the garden. (Oregon gardeners 
are used to working in the rain.) 

In addition to the uncooperative weather, some other things didn't go as 
expected. The area prepared for the garden didn't exactly fit the boundaries 
originally outlined on the site plan, and the gravel path had not been laid 
along the designated route, primarily because of construction of the retaining 
wall - an on-the-spot innovation of the team doing the site preparation, when 
the existing slope proved too steep. Perhaps because the workers preparing 
the site expended considerable effort in building the wall, not all weeds had 
been removed as promised, so some of our precious planting time had to be 




Figure 4. Erica cinerea 'Celebration' flows between signposts in the hospital garden; 'Velvet 
Night' is in upper right; Galluna vulgaris 'Bray Head' is left foreground. 



34 



spent removing tap-rooted weeds. Finally, when all purchased and donated 
plants had been unloaded and placed in the general areas where they were 
to be planted, we discovered that not all requested cultivars had arrived 
and that members had brought along some cultivars I had not requested! 

Thus, although we attempted to follow the (soggy) planting plan, fine- 
tuning of the design became a co-operative effort, as we compensated for 
the different hardscape and cultivar availability. What began as somewhat 
awkward blotchy patches on the landscaping plan emerged in more graceful 
final form as we juggled plants for the most pleasing effect and attempted to 
adjust for missing and substitute cultivars. All pots were set out on the ground 
before any heather was planted, so that we could be certain we had the final 
design right. 

One combination in particular was tweaked into a much more interesting 
shape than I had envisioned. I'd wanted a large patch of Erica cinerea 
'Celebration', my favourite golden-leaved cultivar, to be an attention grabber 
as visitors approached the hospital from town. It was to be right at the 
beginning of the garden, by the service road entrance. Highland Heather 
nursery-owner Janice Leinwebber suggested that we run the planting under 
the service road sign, so a stream of gold now flows from an irregularly 
shaped golden pool on one side of the sign to a differently shaped golden 
pool on the other side. This large patch of 'Celebration' is abutted on one 
side by a planting of £. cinerea 'Velvet Night' that provides a dark foil for the 
gold when its nearly black flowers open. 

Low cultivars were planted at the corners where sidewalk and driveways 
intersect: Calluna vulgaris 'White Lawn' at one end and a white-flowering 
Erica carnea at the other. The identity of this Erica is a mystery that we hope 
to solve when it blooms. 

We may have set a speed record for garden planting as we struggled to 
finish quickly and get out of the rain and into dry clothing. All of the more 
than 400 heathers brought that day, in either 4in-diameter or gallon-sized 
pots, were planted in less than two hours. Digging the planting holes evolved 
into a game of sorts. As we encountered erratic chunks of clay and rock that 
would impede the growth of heather roots in the otherwise friable soil, we 
tossed them into the catchment basin. The "game" part of this activity 
involved managing not to hit fellow members. 

The rain may have been an annoyance, and the gardeners quickly turned 
into mud-puppies, well spattered from head to toe, but it got the garden off 
to a great start. There were very few losses during the garden's first winter. 

As missing cultivars became available, either later that autumn or in the 
spring, we added them, eventually filling all the gaps. The few plants that 



35 



died were replaced, except in one small part of the garden that proved too wet 
and shady to support heathers. Bowies' golden grass (Carex elata 'Aurea') would 
be more suitable for that spot and will be planted there this coming spring. 

Planting a garden for a public institution that depends heavily upon 
donations and volunteer workers has its challenges, as we have learned over 
the last three years. Because the hospital is close to an interchange on 
Interstate 5, the main West Coast north-south superhighway, OHS members 
find it easy to make a brief visit as they pass the garden on their travels. 
Sometimes we have been pleasantly surprised at how quickly the garden has 
become an asset to the community. Other times, we have had unpleasant shocks. 

The first, and still the worst, shock came when we arrived to discover 
that someone had planted maple trees in the heather garden. Gone was 
Rosa glauca, under-planted with Daboecia cantabrica 'Cinderella', that was to 
have added height, movement and variety to one end of the garden. A maple 
tree now occupied the rose's place, although most of the Daboecia had 
survived the intrusion. Other maples were spaced evenly along the sidewalk 
at regular intervals, continuing a line of trees that began at the property's 
northern boundary, ran in front of the hospital's roadside parking lot, 
continued through the heather garden, and ended at the service road. One 
dwarf conifer had also been transplanted to make way for a maple. 

We contacted Alan Williams immediately and explained that if the maples 
were allowed to remain in the garden, all our effort (and the cost of the 
heather plants) would be wasted. We learned that he had not been consulted 
about the trees and that they had been given by a very generous hospital 
donor whom the hospital dare not offend. Alan managed to work out a 
compromise. The maples, potentially very large trees, were moved to a lawn 
south of the heather garden and west of the catchment area trees. They are 
bound to cause trouble for the heathers in the long run, because they will shed 
multitudinous leaves and seeds, but at least they no longer are in the garden. 

The advent of the maples was the beginning of a game of "musical plants", 
as we attempted to repair the damage. Quite a few plants had been moved 
or removed, and it took several tries to get them replanted where they should 
be. We decided not to replace the missing rose but planted, instead, Erica australis 
'Riverslea', which would require less maintenance and was, after all, a heather. 

A later visit revealed that many of the heathers had been nearly buried 
when the garden was mulched. The original mulch had not been applied 
thickly enough, and after all the plant-moving, it was nearly gone from some 
parts of the garden. Community volunteers spread more mulch, but nobody 
was there to teach them the proper way to apply it around heathers. They 



36 



not only had buried many of the plants' outer branches; they also had de- 
posited mulch right in the centre of some plants. I spent a lot of time during 
that visit rescuing plants from the misapplied mulch. 

When OHS agreed to plant the hospital garden, we said that we would 
give the garden its first pruning, and at the same time, we would teach local 
volunteers how to prune heathers so that they could assume responsibility 
for the garden. OHS members are scattered all over western Oregon, some 
living more than 100 miles from Cottage Grove. We did not want to have to 
maintain the garden. At the initial, well-advertised pruning session, only 
one local gardener and a couple of hospital employees showed up. We 
quickly realized that if the garden were to be the showcase for heathers we 
had intended it to be, we as a society would have to continue to prune the 
heathers. We have now devised a pruning schedule that spreads the task 
out over three visits: late autumn, when we prune the Daboecia, spring-tipped 
Calluna and any other Calluna cultivars that have finished blooming and are 
not grown primarily for foliage effect (golds, reds, silvers, bright greens such 
as 'Martha Hermann'); early spring, when we prune everything else except 
the spring-bloomers; and late spring, when only a few people are needed to 
prune the spring-bloomers, including the tree heaths. By not attempting to 
prune all at once, we don't overwhelm the limited capacity of our small 
society and we ensure that the heathers are pruned at the best time for their 
health and appearance. 

By the 2006 annual North American Heather Society conference, which 
the OHS hosted, the Cottage Grove Community Hospital heather garden, 
though not quite two years old, was looking good enough to include on the 
pre-conference tour. As a major player in the garden's design and 
maintenance, I was eager to show off "our baby" to other heather enthusiasts. 
Imagine my dismay when, upon arriving at the hospital with the tour group, 
I discovered that someone had given the sedges "hair cuts"! No longer were 
they gracefully flowing fountains, assets to the garden. They were now 
awkward upright bundles of stems - no grace at all to these pathetic things. 
When I contacted Alan Williams to explain that sedges should not be pruned 
in summer - they rarely need pruning at all, only combing to remove dead 
blades - he confessed that he had cut them back because they were impinging 
upon adjacent heathers. I assured him that had been my intent. There were 
plenty of heathers, so we could spare the few that were crowded by the sedges. 

During the tour visit, we also discovered that the corner planting of 
Calluna vulgaris 'White Lawn' was in trouble. One of the in-ground sprinkler 
heads was in that corner, so lack of water should not have been the problem. 



37 




Figure 5. The retaining wall has become a popular place for hospital staff 
to sit. Foreground: Calluna vulgaris 'Firefly', left; Erica x stuartii 'Irish Lemon', 
center; E. x darleyensis 'Mary Helen', right. 



However, when I returned to check it the next morning, the spray pattern 
showed that the water from that sprinkler was going clear across 'White 
Lawn', but none was landing on the nearest plants. Rather than plant 



38 



something else there, we are hoping that surviving plants of the cultivar 
further away from the sprinkler head, which do receive some water, will 
eventually spread to cover the dry spot. 

One last mishap attributable to the garden's public /institutional nature 
occurred just this summer. The hospital badly needed a fibre optic cable 
system. Access to the existing network was through the metal box in the 
heather garden. Although Alan Williams tried to postpone installation of 
the new system until autumn, when disturbed heathers would have the best 
chance of surviving, the work was done in late summer when the heathers 
were already stressed by high temperatures and no rain. Alan replanted 
them after the installation had been completed, trying as best he could to 
plant them where they had been originally. Amazingly, the only significant 
loss was Erica erigena 'Hibernica', that had been planted next to the utilities 
box to hide it. The heath was already large when it was planted, and it didn't 
survive the disruption to its extensive root system. We have not replaced it, 
though we may do so eventually. The upright metal box now has an in- 
ground companion. Concealing that box will be impossible, because workers 
must have access to the box at all times. So be it. 

These bumps along the public road detract only a little from our pride in 
what we have created. The garden is only three years old, but it is already 
giving joy to many people. This past summer, it was rarely without a visitor, 
and many visitors brought their cameras. Because garden visitors were asking 
hospital workers the names of heathers they particularly liked, we finally 
labelled the cultivar groupings, in the least obtrusive way we could. The 
names are painted in dark brown on red, grey or black river rocks, hand- 
sized or slightly smaller. These rounded rock labels are snuggled into the 
mulch where they can be seen from either gravel path or sidewalk. We are 
hoping that they don't become souvenirs for garden visitors. So far, they 
seem to be staying put. Only the cultivar name is on each label. We provided 
the hospital with an alphabetical list of the 71 cultivars. There is a 
corresponding alphabetically arranged list of genera and species (there are 
17, including hybrids) followed by cultivar names, and OHS member Barbara 
Reed recently re-sketched the planting plan to reflect actual cultivar locations 
and number of plants per group. The hospital heather garden is now both 
beautiful and a place where area residents can learn about heathers. 



Heathers 5: 39-43 (2008). © E. G. H. Oliver 

Old painting instrumental in rediscovery of a Cape Erica species 

E. G. H. Oliver 

Department of Botany & Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, STELLENBOSCH, 
South Africa. 



For almost two centuries, a painting from about 1820 was one of the only 
traces there were of a particularly beautiful tricoloured Erica species, 
Erica recurvata. None had ever been recorded in the wild, and for all we 
knew, the plant might as well have been a hybrid raised in a London nursery 
or even a figment of the artist's fruitful imagination. 

In early September last year (2007) the Erica enthusiast, Ross Turner, was 
working in the mountains above the town of Napier in the Western Cape, 
South Africa, as part of consultancy work for a proposed nature conservancy. 
He was recording the flora and degree of infestation by alien European pines, 
Australian wattles and Hakea for the local landowners. Ever keen to note 
any interesting ericas, Ross noticed some small plants growing in rock 
crevices on large boulders. From a distance these could well be the interesting 
Erica banksii, but on closer examination he was astonished to see compact, 
nodding heads of white flowers with very long, exserted, red styles. This 
was something he had never seen before and could very well be a new species 
- "rubristyla" was the name he coined for it himself. He phoned me and 
said he had just sent some photographs by email, would I look at them and 
see if they were of a new species. Well of course I could not wait until the 
Monday morning in office so went down to look at the photographs 
immediately. At first I was struck by the flowers and red styles which I had 
not seen before in any live material. Going through the photographs several 
times the "penny suddenly dropped" - 1 had seen those long styles before in 
a very odd looking Erica when I had photographed all the old Erica paintings 
by H. C. Andrews. I started to search my database of the photographs and 
there I came across the exact replica of Ross's plant - Erica recurvata apparently 
named by Andrews himself! 

The painting was done by the eighteenth to nineteenth century British 
botanical artist, Henry Charles Andrews. This was from his very rare 
publication Coloured engravings of heaths, which consists of four large volumes 




Erica recurvata 



Throughout this extensive family there is not one that bears any resemblance to 
this -perfectly new and distinct species; the aggregation of the leaves and branches, 
joined to the drooping character of its flowers, with long descending pointals that 
rival the finest purple silk, give it a singularity of appearance that renders it 
equally interesting with the most splendid species. We have seen it flowering 
successively from the end of almost every branch. 
Our figure represents nearly an entire plant from the Nursery of Mr. Lee. 



H. C. ANDREWS, Coloured engravings of heaths, plate 262. 



41 




Figure 2. Close-up of flowers of Erica recurvata. 

containing 288 full-coloured plates of almost exclusively Cape Erica species 
in cultivation in the London area between 1794 and 1828. These books are 
extremely valuable, with very few full sets available worldwide. It was not 
possible to ascertain the exact date of the painting, in the investigations done 
several years ago by Ron Cleevely, Charles Nelson and myself. It was 
probably some time before 1821. 

The notes accompanying the painting give no indication of the wild origin 
of the plant that Andrews used as his model. All that is known is that it 
came from the nursery of Mr Lee - in other words, from Lee & Kennedy's 
Hammersmith Nursery. (Andrews was married to one of Kennedy's 



42 




Figure 3. Ross Turner pointing to a small plant. Figure 4. The same plant on its boulder. 



daughters.) In my database of Erica specimens, I have recorded three 
specimens in Kew's herbarium, all labelled as "cultivated material". Only 
one was dated - it was collected in May 1816 at "Milburn". Considering the 
herbarium specimens and the painting, this heath looked like rather lush 
Erica bruniifolia or E. cumuliflora, and I could only assume that it was a 
hybrid raised by some horticulturist, a regular practice at the time with 
Cape ericas to satisfy the demand for new plants. With no herbarium 
specimens of it collected from the wild, the plant was relegated to "hybrid 
of uncertain origin". 

The earliest record of the name Erica recurvata traced for the International 
register of heather names is not in Andrews's Coloured engravings of heaths, but 
in another rare work: John Gashing' s The exotic gardener, first published in 
1811. At that time, as indicated on the title-page, Cushing was "Foreman to 
Messrs. Lee & Kennedy, Hammersmith". Taken together, these sparse facts 
suggests that this particular erica was introduced around the middle of the 
first decade of the nineteenth century and that Lee & Kennedy's nursery 
was the most likely place where it was first raised. 

Also of specific interest was a Kew specimen labelled "McNab". William 
McNab was Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh from 



43 



1810 until his death in 1848, and he wrote a small book on growing Cape 
heaths, published in Edinburgh in 1832. Before that, between 1801 and 1810, 
McNab had been a gardener at the Royal Gardens, Kew. Thus, he was 
working Kew during a decade when seeds of many of the Cape ericas arrived 
from a fellow Scot, the gardener / collector James Niven who was at the Cape 
of Good Hope from 1799 to 1812. Originally Niven was collecting for 
George Hibbert of Clapham, and then for Lee and Kennedy in Hammersmith, 
so James Niven seems to be the most likely person to have collected seeds of 
Erica recurvata in the wild. 

Niven kept small voucher specimens with brief notes on locality and habit. 
These landed up in Edinburgh, in William McNab' s possession, and then 
went to Dublin (because McNab' s son was Professor of Botany there in the 
1880s). While the bulk of McNab's herbarium was purchased for the National 
Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Niven' s Erica specimens and notes went to Kew. 
In my database of Niven' s Erica collections there are no records of his having 
been at the Napier locality, but he was about 35-50km away somewhere on 
the Klein River Mountains where the species could well grow. 

A visit to the locality with Ross was very exciting. The plants he found 
flowering grew in crevices on some large sandstone boulders - there were 
only nine of them! They are small woody plants from only a few centimetres 
tall and across to an old gnarled plant little more than 10cm across, all 
protected from the ravages of fires that sweep the mountains. A thorough 
search by Ross along the whole range has revealed no more plants. With the 
very specific habit requirement it is relatively easy to locate any likely 
localities for the plants. 

The species has most distinctive long, red styles hanging from white and 
black-tipped flowers which face downwards in small heads. The unusual, 
very dark red, almost black, corolla lobes are shared by only two species, 
Erica cumuliflora and E. genistifolia, both of which grow on mountains just to the 
west, the former on dry, open slopes, the latter on damp ledges or rock faces. 

What is intriguing is the size of the largest plant. At 10cm across, 
Erica recurvata forms a woody, gnarled rootstock from which lots of short 
branches arise after each burn. Knowing the age to which regenerating species 
grow in the Cape fynbos area, it would not be surprising to estimate the age 
of this plant at several hundred years. Did Niven perhaps visit this plant for 
his seed almost 200 years ago? 

The discovery in the wild of this long-lost species is almost more exciting 
than finding yet another new species! 



Heathers 5: 44-52 (2008). 

Northern Spain, July 2007 

Richard Canovan, Eileen Petterssen, Gianlupo Osti & Susie Kay*: 
edited & augmented by Charles Nelson 

* Contributions are identified by § at the start and the author's initials at the end. 



Domingo (Sunday). While three of the party were travelling from distant 
parts - Lupo Osti from Italy, Dee Daneri and Molly Eggel from the western 
USA (via the Alhambra) - four assembled at Stansted on 8 July. The quartet 
comprised Eileen Petterssen from Norway, Susie Kay (The Heather Society's 
Conference Manager) from Connemara, Richard Canovan from Toothill, and 
the Honorary Editor. The easyjet flight landed at Asturias airport a trifle 
late and it was rather shocking to see the wet runway and to be told the 
temperature was just 15°C. 

Teresa Farino, our tour manager and leader, was waiting. Lupo had 
already arrived and was chatting with Stuart Hedley who was to be our 
companion for several days. But there was no sign of the American 
contingent. Where could they be? Announcements were made, but Dee and 
Molly did not materialize. 

While Teresa waited for the next flight from Madrid, the rest of us set off, 
guided by Stuart, for a brief visit to some coastal heathland - an unplanned 
addition to the programme. We reached a small headland at Playa de 
Torimbia, and took the chance to see what was in flower. Cornish, Dorset 
and St Dabeoc's heaths, ling and bell heather (for Latin names, see Table 1, 
see p. 52) - all splendid, in the gentle, rather Irish, soaking drizzle. Our 
American friends, and Teresa, joined us shortly afterwards. With the party 
complete, we set off for our first hotel, following Teresa and guided, 
ingeniously, using inter-vehicular walkie-talkies! 

Hotel La Balsa in Soto de Cangas was ideally situated, and this lovely, 
old, stone building with very comfortable rooms was our base for three nights. 

Lunes (Monday). § The rain that greeted our arrival in Asturias was clearly 
a cold front as we woke to a glorious crisp morning. After breakfast we 
departed to Covadonga in the Picos de Europa National Park. It was to be 
rather busy but we were eventually able to park and walk to Llagu La Ercina 



45 




At Llagu La Ercina. Right to left: Teresa, Lupo, Morning coffee near Covadonga (ECN). Right 
Susie, Richard, Dee, Molly, Eileen, Charles; to left: Richard (explaining microwave 
photograph by courtesy of Stuart Hedley cooking), Stuart, Lupo, Molly, Susie, Eileen. 



to examine the limestone terrain and its flora. The sink holes and other geo- 
morphological features provided varied habitats. Teresa and Stuart knew 
where to find the real gems. These included the familiar harebell, small- 
flowered foxglove, Pyrenean eryngo, toadflax and saxifrage - one massive 
rockery! A yew struggled up one of the limestone crevices. We found 
Mackay's, cross-leaved and Cornish heaths. We stopped there for the group 
photograph. The Picos still held a few patches of snow in the corries, despite 
the snow-free winter, and that may be the explanation for the paucity of 
butterflies, their larvae not having been protected from the frost. 

Before lunch we visited the cave and chapel, a shrine to the Virgin of 
Covadonga, where the prince Pelayo resisted the Moors in the eighth century, 
and viewed the nineteenth-century basilica regarded by many as the 
birthplace of Spain as we know it. [RC] 

Teresa had prepared a picnic and decided that the best place for this was 
on the terrace back at our hotel, so we retired there. Lupo recalls the whole 
trip, but especially those lunches; § I increased not only my knowledge of 
heathers but also my weight: ... the picnics organized by Teresa were surely 
among the best I had in my long life as an inveterate globe-trotter. [GO] 

§ After our delightful lunch, it was off to the north west for Sierra de 
Sueve, a limestone peak nearer the coast. At well over 1,000 metres, the air 
was still quite cool and conditions ideal for work. The sparkling clear polar 
air provided stunning views of the coast and inland towards the Picos de 
Europa. One outcrop had four genera of Ericaceae - Calluna, Daboecia, Erica 
and V actinium. Seven different heathers were found - tree, southern, Dorset, 
and Mackay's heaths and bell heather, plus ling and St Dabeoc's heath. Stuart 
was the first to find a white-flowered plant of Mackay's heath; there was 



46 



also a good mauve and the more typical pink shades. There was an excellent 
bright purple bell heather and a pale-flowered plant, and a floriferous, light 
purple St Dabeoc's heath. [RC] 

Martes (Tuesday). Teresa wanted to show us a fine segment of coastal heath 
which she had visited on our behalf, and so our programme was revised and 
we set off in convoy along the motorway westwards, almost back to the airport. 

Cabo de Penas is a promontory, bounded by cliffs. A short walk from the 
car park at the lighthouse (the ancillary building of which now serves as a 
visitor centre and natural history museum) brought us to the edge of the 
coastal heathland, and almost immediately Teresa and Stuart spotted the 
lovely summer lady's-tresses (Spiranthes aestivalis), so we spent a little time 
admiring and photographing the orchid. A little further on, a network of 
paths and tracks allowed access to a "patchwork quilt" of heathers. Teresa 
showed us patches of white Mackay's heath that she had found earlier, and 
we soon spotted others scattered about - they did stand out! The urge to 
wander and explore was overwhelming, and we soon were scattered about 
on our own, wandering across the cape, looking at pale Mackays and dark 
Dabeocs, striped Dorsets and creamy Cornishes. A "patchwork quilt" is a 
perfect description of this gently undulating landscape thickly covered with 
dwarf shrubs. The heathers were in brilliant bloom in every shade of pink 
and purple, mingling with bright blue scrambling gromwell and yellow 
cinquefoil We also soon learned that while the hummocks of Cornish, Dorset, 
Mackay's and St Dabeoc's heaths, ling and bell heather looked soft and gentle, 
they were inextricably interlaced with extremely sharp gorse. 

Cabo de Penas impressed us all, even those not besotted by heathers, 
and the photographers among us all got some good pictures. Stuart had 
been especially pleased to find plants "The Heather Society might not be 
interested in - Exaculum, Spiranthes, Cicendia, etc!": Exaculum and Cicendia 
are minuscule annuals related to gentians. 

Here are Eileen's recollections. § Ever since I read about the 1982 tour to 
Spain, it became my strong wish to see the great variety of Erica species in 
the wild for myself. Originally the chance to perhaps find something exciting 
was in my mind, I must admit, but by now my propagation days are over. 
To me the greatest pleasure in heathers has always been to be with them and 
the heather's ability to survive unfavourable conditions is a great attraction 
for me. For seeing hardy heathers in the wild this field-trip certainly must be 
the best ever - the places we were taken to were magnificent. No doubt 
there will be some new cultivars out soon as we really did see outstanding 
plants well worth naming. 



47 




Above: Dorset heath and white-flowered Mackay's heath at Cabo de Pefias. 
Below: white-flowered Cornish heath and cross-leaved heath at Cervera de Pisuerga. 
Photographs © Teresa Farino. 




48 




Teresa's first picnic lunch on the terrace at Hotel Photographing white-flowered heather, Cabo 
La Balsa (ECN). de Penas (ECN). 



With the few cultivars available in Norway it would have been tempting 
to take cutting material from several specimens of all the species we saw. 
For instance, I've seen many pale bell heathers in the wild here, but never a 
pure white one and my excitement was great spotting one near the edge of 
Cabo de Penas. To others it was nothing special and not worthy a name. 
Happy memories do not need names!" [EP] 

On the way to the heathland we had all noticed a white-flowered plant 
of St Dabeoc's heath in a area that was enclosed by a high fence, part of the 
lighthouse compound. Whether it was the fact it was apparently inaccessible, 
or whether it was just the lure of a white heather - Queen Victoria has a lot 
to answer for! - some of the party wanted to get nearer to "photograph" this 
plant. Teresa "pulled all strings" she could think of, and eventually got 
permission for us to traipse through more gorse to see this plant. 
"Photographs" were taken, of course! The lighthouse keeper was watching 
but seemed quite unperturbed; indeed he told Teresa that he was delighted 
some people were more interested in the wild plants rather than the plastic 
shark that "guarded" the visitor centre. There was a white Dorset nearby too. 

After our very successful morning, we moved to a nearby beach, Playa 
de Xago, for our picnic lunch, after which we all took a brisk walk along the 
dune tracks. There was some excellent Cornish heath in full bloom, and on 
the beach abundant sea holly and a patch of handsome white sea daffodils 
{Pancratium maritimum). 

Our next destination, Playa de Espana, to the east of Cabo de Penas, was 
a fascinating place, included so that we could see Irish heath, even though it 
was not in flower. The heather grows on the sea-cliffs, in the wet patches 
where fresh water is trickling down. Another species notched up. 



49 



Miercoles (Wednesday). Transfer day: we were moving from Hotel La Balsa 
and to break up the long drive, Teresa had arranged for us to visit Tito Bustillo 
at Ribadesella. These caves contain a remarkable series of prehistoric 
(Palaeolithic and Neolithic) paintings of animals on the walls and ceilings. 
We did not have a picnic today, but a sumptuous fish lunch, Spanish-style, 
at a bustling pavement restaurant in San Vicente de la Barquera, further 
along the coast. Then we drove through the gorge that leads to south-eastern 
side of the mountains, stopping for a break at the little pre-Romanesque 
church of Santa Maria at Lebena with its strange Celtic (pre-Christian) carved 
altar-stone. Our destination was Teresa's home village, Pesaguero, and 
Posada El Hoyal. A heather-less day, for a change. 

The posada is a small modern hotel with a swimming pool, and a superb 
restaurant! § Who could imagine that in a posada rural in a remote village - 
as a matter of fact just three or four houses - in the Picos de Europa, an area 
known and publicized for its wilderness, you could have the food that you 
may expect to have in the Ritz of Paris or London? [GO] 

Jueves (Thursday). For today's visits we were driving southwards, and 
crossing the watershed. The first stop was at Puerto de Piedrasluengas, a 
pass at 1,355m altitude. In 1982 David McClintock, David Small and I had 
been to this place but my notes do not indicate that we found any heathers 
of interest. Teresa, of course, knew where to go: a clear indication of the 
benefit of engaging a local guide! At the pass itself, in a wet flush, there was 
an impressive stand of lizard orchids. We had a lovely walk through ancient 
beech woods, to an open saddle where horses were grazing. Just beyond 
this was hill side densely cloaked with southern heath, alas not in bloom 
(you can't arrange everything!), interspersed with bell heather which was in 
flower. Despite the fact it was not in flower, the thicket of southern heath 
was most impressive, and the associated plants too - wood sage and yellow 
sun-roses (ideas for mingling?). 

We continued southwards to a site that Teresa had reconnoitred, both as 
a picnic place and as an interesting and different type of heathland. At 
Cervera de Pisuerga, on deep sand, we found dwarf Spanish heath (just 
finished flowering) with bell heather, Cornish and St Dabeoc's heaths and 
cross-leaved heath. Some of the plants of cross-leaved heath were very 
remarkable with silver- white foliage (alas, my cuttings drowned in Outwell, 
but I have photographs). Teresa found a splendid white Cornish heath - she 
had been completely baffled, to begin with, by the group's interest in white- 
flowered heathers. After wandering about here on a lovely sunny afternoon, 



50 



it was time to return to the hotel, with another stop to see one of the regions 
magnificent Romanesque churches at San Salvador de Cantamuda. 

Viernes (Friday): 13th. § Once again we left the hotel looking at brilliant 
blue skies and the promise of a hot day. We passed through a small town 
called Potes, which looked as if it would be good retail therapy. In fact the 
American contingent opted for the shopping. So only the Europeans were 
daring the odds on this awful day and for one who has the fear known as 
paraskavedekatriaphobia, the imminent journey in a cage hanging from a wire 
caused the blood pressure to rise. But I was assured that in Spain Tuesday 
the Thirteenth is the unlucky day. 

Arriving at Fuente De we waited our turn for the cable car. All crowded 
in, and up, up and away into the mountains - what an easy way to gain a 
few thousand feet - into the magic world of the soaring peaks of the Picos. 

Leaving the consumer area of shops and cafes we had been transported 
to an alpine meadow. Everyone is soon scrambling around on hands and 
knees, wondering at the botanical treasures on offer - rockroses, columbines, 
Androsace (tiny relatives of the primrose) and gentians - and some friendly, 
greedy alpine choughs. Charles, of course, is first to spot the gentian, just 
the one in full flower. Lupo was delighted to find daphne which he thought 
might show some different characteristics from the usual plant. 

Teresa had kindly arranged the trip so that I might stretch my legs and 
have a walk, but poor Charles had to "mind me". It is not often that one has 
the chance to just walk downhill, i.e. no effort, and still enjoy mountain 
scenery. But I had not imagined a jeep track all the way; in fact it was more 
like a motorway with many people and the occasional 4x4. 

We ascended a short way to where several paths branched off further 
into the mountain wilderness, but wisely set our sights downhill. No heathers 
here and vegetation eaten right down by horses, cattle and sheep. Clean air, 
wonderful sun, but a mighty wind. Down and down we went, with Charles 
pointing out botanical curiosities of the area. Around halfway down a sight 
for sore eyes for me - a coffee shop!! So we had a break with a wonderful 
cup and set to looking for a place for lunch on the very bare hillside away 
from the local animals. Teresa had prepared us a feast as usual, but we had 
declined the wine today. This was the only area where we saw heather, 
namely Cornish heath and it was very stunted. 

Down and down and getting steeper with lots of loose stones, but in the 
distance we could see the small village where we had left the car. Several 
hostelries too, so we were able to have refreshment before the drive to Potes 



51 



where local foods were available to buy; cheese and honey for me. Our ho- 
tel had a pool, which gave Charles and me the chance of a quick dip before 
the others returned for dinner. [SK] 

Meanwhile ... § The days passed all too fast and the final day came. For 
most of us it was a no-heather-day. After the splendour of the Pico peaks 
and alpine plants we split up and four of us were taken to the hillside village 
of Tudes with vernacular architecture and walnut trees. It was nice to see a 
few of the old buildings done into holiday flats without spoiling their 
character. The 30 or so inhabitants had joined forces and done the centre 
into a nice 'square' in the shade of old trees, with a table and benches. In the 
company of some hens we enjoyed the last of Teresa's lovely lunches. The 
glimpse of local life in a peaceful setting was really nice. [EP] 

§ Our last evening together on what had been a truly international trip. It 
began with a drink at Teresa's home: a chance to say "thank you". The 
Americans had not been lazy on their shopping trip and had found wonderful 
presents for our tour leaders. Molly had painted beautiful cards for Teresa 
and Charles, but it was THE HAT presented to Charles which produced the 
most gasps. The peals of laughter and the sighs of admiration that, once 
again, Dee had found the perfect present. Much photographing and people 
trying it on. 




The Hat! The wearer's identity has been disguised. (© Dee Daneri). 



It was an illuminating trip to find so many heathers co-existing; we are 
used to seeing them in different habitats. A big public "thank you" to Teresa 
for arranging the trip: it really was a once-in-a-lifetime chance. [SK] 



52 



Sabado (Saturday) 

We retraced our route, north through the gorge and on to the motorway, 
getting quickly to Gijon, where we paused for a short time to look around 
the quite new Jardm Botanico Atlantico. In the heathland section, a fine 
Cornish heath was in flower (we assume it was wild-collected), and there 
were representatives of the other species. A hunt for a plant of Stuart's heath 
(Erica x stuartii) eventually led almost back to the entrance, although the 
heather beside the label did not look right. (£. x stuartii, the hybrid between 
E. tetralix and E. mackayana, was discovered in Asturias about 1992, and last 
year was also found in Galicia.) Soon afterwards, we had checked in for our 
flight and the trip came to an end. We flew north, over Cabo de Penas. 

Everyone enjoyed the trip: the enchanting landscapes and vistas; learning 
to recognize Quercus pyrenaica; those picnics; the heathers, white and pink 
and purple; the chance to make new friends and again to renew 
acquaintances; the opportunity to revisit places seen in a hurry decades ago. 
As for Teresa, she shall have the "last word": "Thanks to you all too, for 
being great fun, for introducing me to the variations in the Ericaceae, and 
for your generosity at the end of the trip. I will now look on those purple 
hillsides with a different eye!" 



Table 1: Heathers seen in northern Spain, July 2007 

(* in flower; £ with white flowers) 



English name 

bell heather * t 
Cornish heath * + 
cross-leaved heath * 
Dorset heath * t 
dwarf Spanish heath 
Irish heath 
ling (common heath) 
Mackay's heath * $ 
St Dabeoc's heath * t 
southern heath 
tree heath 



Latin 

Erica cinerea 
Erica vagans 
Erica tetralix 
Erica ciliaris 
Erica umbellata 
Erica erigena 
Calluna vulgaris 
Erica mackayana 
Daboecia cantabrica 
Erica australis 
Erica arborea 



53 

Hendrieke Berg's hand-coloured copper engravings 




Eileen Petterssen, a member of The Heather Society since April 1977, recently 
presented to the Society a set of three hand-coloured engravings by Hendrieke Berg. 

The three engravings represent the heathers that are native in Norway: Rosslyng 
(Calluna vulgaris, see p. 54), Purpurlyng (Erica cinerea) and Klokkelyng (£. tetralix: 
frontispiece). Eileen commissioned Purpurlyng; the others had been created earlier. 
The outline of each image was engraved on a copper plate, and then printed. The 
prints are individually finished by hand, using aquarell colours, to emphasize the 
individual appearance of each print. 



54 




Hendrieke Berg grew up in the Netherlands. In 1985 she moved to Norway, 
where she works as a botanical artist and illustrator. She studied systematic botany 
at the University of Bergen and has considerable expertise in botanical illustration, 
her images having been published in such prestigious works as Curtis' 's botanical 
magazine, Flora neotropica and Flora malesiana. She is often inspired by the abundance 
of Norwegian flora and fauna, and is now working on a project about historic tulips. 

As The Heather Society has no permanent library or archive, a decision was 
made to deposit the triptych on permanent loan in The Lindley Library of the Royal 
Horticultural Society. 

The set is reproduced in this issue by kind permission of Hendrieke Berg. 



55 



The Heather Society's Proceedings 2007 
Stepping down 

On returning home from a short trip to Germany with my local horticultural 
society in 2000, 1 was somewhat surprised to find a letter from David Small 
following a Council meeting that it had been agreed that the position of 
Chairman should be offered to me as he was relinquishing it to take over as 
President from David McClintock who was stepping down due to failing 
health. I was surprised, proud and humbled that, subject to confirmation by 
the members at the Buxton AGM, I was to follow in the footsteps of so many 
prominent incumbents of this position. As I was not at this Council meeting, 
only the fourth incidentally that I had missed since 1972, 1 assumed that no 
else had wanted the job. I will never know! 

Looking back now, the first year was a baptism of fire as our Honorary 
Secretary, Ron Cleevely, resigned for health reasons and our Honorary 
Treasurer, Tony Princep, was also not in the best of health. At Hereford in 
2001, 1 was pleased that Jean Julian agreed to become the Honorary Secretary, 
and my thanks to her for the assistance she has given to me during my time 
in office, especially over the past year when she has tackled the recent Charity 
Commission administration requirements which seem to become more 
complex each year. 

In 2002 Phil Joyner took over as Honorary Treasurer and it has been a great 
help to have these two reliable officers helping with the running of the Society. 

I wish that this farewell message could mention that the Society was 
increasing its membership, but despite the best efforts of your Council, 
including advertising, this is not the case, but efforts are continuing. We are 
not alone in this regard; other societies also have problems recruiting new 
members, especially younger ones. 

In my report at each AGM, I mention that members get good value for their 
subscription with three interesting Bulletins a year from Daphne Everett and a 
first-class Yearbook from Charles Nelson. I make no apologies for repeating this. 

Looking back over these last eight years the most rewarding event was the 
2nd International Conference in 2004 that my wife and I arranged at 
Colyumbridge, with assistance from Betty and David Lambie from the Speyside 
Heather Centre, and the post-conference tour to Skye and Wester Ross with an 
eccentric, although likeable coach-owner/ driver named Colin Stewart. 

These memories will remain, as indeed will others. I shall miss the day to 
day running of the Society, but will continue to take a keen interest. My best 
wishes to my successor. 

Arnold Stoic 



56 



Annual Gathering and 35 th Annual Conference 
Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, 7-10 September 2007 

Pembrokeshire, ahem, is Wales! 

"We never go to Waaaales," I complained to everyone in The Heather Society 
whenever anyone would listen. 

"There is no heather in Wales," was a frequent reply. Now, even though 
I'm American and there are a lot of places in Great Britain I don't know, 
I doubted this was an accurate assessment of the ericaceousness of the 
westernmost bit of the big island. When it was announced the 2007 conference 
was being held in Pembrokeshire I was still unimpressed, right up until 
conference organizer Susie Kay more or less gently broke the news to me 
that Pembrokeshire is Wales. Duh, what to do? Stop whingeing and go to 
Wales of course! 

Arrival in Haverfordwest (after a personal little side trip to Caldey Island, 
home of Cistercian monks and heavenly perfumes) brought happy hellos to 
old friends and several new faces. Our hotel, The Mariners, was founded in 
1624 but had updated their facilities enough to accommodate us in comfort 
and charm, and to feed and water us extremely well. 

It is customary at The Heather Society's conferences to have a speaker 
the first night who tells us about the 
locality we're in, to better understand 
the lay of the land. This year's expert 
gave us our educational component 
of the conference as well as a whole 
new environmental issue to think 
about: re-wilding. 

Matt Sutton, a senior conservation 
officer in Pembrokeshire, explained 
the background of his highly unusual 
Marloes Coast Project. The National 
Trust, he said, is in the process of 
acquiring as much coastal land as 
possible in the name of conservation. 
Returning what was formerly used as 
farm fields to natural heathland is the 
goal - to make an area wild again - 
and it is one of about sixty similar 
projects taking place all over Britain. 




57 



It's an interesting concept, and for those of us with agriculture in our 
background, an ethical dilemma. But it might be a wave of the future, too. 

The next morning we journeyed out by coach to see how it's done. High 
above a sunlit bay we walked down an old farm lane while Matt explained 
the problem. How to take acres of grain field, high in lime and well-fed with 
fertilizers, plowed unnaturally flat, and make the land wild again? First you 
remove the topsoil, 20 centimeters or about 8 inches of it, and heap it up in 
hedge banks. That's easy enough to do with machines nowadays, but then 
you have to lower the soil pH dramatically and this is where the story gets 
really interesting. 

There happens to be a huge Chevron-Shell oil refinery just down the 
road, and they happened to have a lot of leftover sulfur hanging around, a 
byproduct of the refining process. So, in 2004 workers spread the dried, not- 
quite-perfectly-powdered sulfur (we picked up chunks of it) at a rate of 
between four and eight tons per hectare. The fields were sprinkled with a 
seed-rich mixture of heather, heath and gorse cuttings obtained by driving a 
farm forage chopper out on a bit of moor, and then Nature took over. 



58 



The result, which we walked through, is a new moor rich in native flora, 
attractive to native fauna, and beginning to look like Pembrokeshire a 
thousand years ago - just amazing, especially in its partnership of new and 
old, or perhaps what we think of as dirty and pure. It certainly gave a lot of 
new, radical ideas to think about. 

But, before we could get too weighed down intellectually, we were 
whisked off to Picton Castle, a wonderful relic of a family seat 850 years old 
but updated with a lovely courtyard restaurant where we had lunch of 
Mediterranean cuisine. After a guided tour of the residence we were turned 
loose in the 40 acres of gardens, plus gift shop, art gallery and, by lucky 
chance, a rare-plant fair that was taking place on the castle grounds. (A garish 
but supposedly rock-hardy variegated Fuchsia from Wales is taking up 
residence in southern Sweden as a result, thanks to that nice coincidence.) 

Back at the hotel it was time for cocktails and dinner, after which we were 
treated to a slide show and details of what we missed by not going on The 
Heather Society field trip to northern Spain earlier in the summer (see p. 44). 

Sunday morning we got "down to business" with the annual general 
meeting. To be honest, your reporter's eyes glazed over here, but I can relay 
the news that our officers are running the society efficiently and well. There 
were no big changes, annual reports were given and approved, and all the 
council members were re-elected. But seriously, we should all say thank- 
you to those who work and toil and even occasionally tear their hair out 
over The Heather Society business, thus allowing the likes of me to take a 
little nap. Thanks, all! 

Back on the coach we headed east to Carmarthenshire (that's in Wales, 
too) and a visit to what surely must be the jewel in the crown of Welsh 
horticulture. The National Botanic Garden of Wales is also the first new 
botanic garden in Great Britain for 200 years, opened in May of the 
millennium year, and thus only seven years old. 

Our arrival by choo-choo train (see Autumn 2007 Bulletin for photographic 
evidence) was hysterically funny, but it did give old legs a rest and eager 
eyes a chance to get an overview of the sweeping lay of the land. 

Originally Middleton Hall, a parkland estate, the place reached its prime 
in the nineteenth century but went into slow, steady decline after World 
War I until the Carmarthen County Council bought it. Today it boasts its 
own herd of Black Welsh cattle and flocks of sheep, amongst many other 
things such as a restored manor house, an original double-walled garden, a 
peach house, ice house, glass house and a restored stable block (where we 
had lunch) as well as world-class views across the Welsh countryside. 



59 




Oh, and did I mention a glasshouse? The Great Glasshouse is simply 
breathtaking and is the largest single-span glasshouse in the world. Built 
largely underground, it fits into the hillside like a giant dewdrop (wouldn't 
you love to see it from the air?) and, according to its purely practical goal, it 
protects and conserves some of the most endangered plants on the planet. 

Our guide explained that the plants inside are those of general 
Mediterranean climate from six distinct areas of the world: California, 
Australia, the Canary Islands, Chile, South Africa and the Mediterranean 
Basin itself. We happily explored continents within a few steps and learned 
that many of these seemingly diverse plants share features such as small, 
leathery, evergreen leaves, in response to the similar conditions they face. 
Beautifully laid out walkways took us around rocky terraces, sandstone cliffs, 
graveled scree slopes, down to little isolated pools, all balancing light and 
shade, moisture levels and a wide range of habitats. The total area is 3,500 
square meters, which is the better part of an acre under glass, no columns! It 
was stunning, and well worth the whole trip. There were even a few heathers 
(Cape heaths!) growing in it. 



60 




Time running short now, we returned to The Mariners for final festive 
watering and feeding, after which conference organizer Susie Kay had 
scheduled the best for last. There was last-minute shopping do be done at 
our own plant sale, a bring-and-buy event that remains a popular mainstay 
of conferences. The new feature this year was a rare-book auction with Alan 
Kay presiding. There were some incredible bargains and as always the 
cheerful auctioneer got many to open their wallets and dig deep. Some real 
treasures of heathery historic interest changed hands, and what a nice way 
it is to remember people by passing down their books to a new generation. 

We also got to see something of each other's gardens in a high-tech 
way during a computer-generated "Open Forum", with the rather 
inexperienced Administrator at the controls of the electronic slide show. 
Isn't technology grand? 

But the people you meet are the grandest of all, as exemplified by our 
Norwegian member who so stunned conference-goers back in 2005 at 
Bournemouth by breaking into melody. Yes, Egil Saele sang us another song! 

Your reporter had a long drive in the pre-dawn light to return a rental 
car, so missed civilized breakfast and leave-taking Monday morning. I think 
all who attended deemed the weekend a success, though, and we left 
reassured that there is heather in Wales after all. 

Judy Wiksten 



Heathers 5: 61-64 (2008). 



BOOK REVIEWS & RECENT PUBLICATIONS 

MARY FORREST, 2005. Landscape trees and shrubs. Selection, use and 
management. Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-054-7. £25. 

In her introduction, Dr Mary Forrest gives some quite depressing data. Only 
about a thousand taxa are cultivated in "public and commercial landscape" 
in Britain and Ireland - compare that with the 2005 RHS plant finder' 's listing 
of around 73,000 taxa (species, cultivars). Her very laudable aim is to 
demonstrate to landscape contractors and their kind that it is possible to use 
many more plants than the "six trees and 15 shrubs" which make up 75% (it 
is estimated) of orders for plants for "public" spaces in Britain. 

This book contain descriptions of plants and their uses, including a page- 
and-a-half on the Ericaceae (less than 1%!). Heathers are only mentioned by 
generic name, apart from Erica cornea. Surely much more use could be made 
of heaths and heathers, especially the taller ones, and those with special 
characteristics like resilience to coastal condition? Some public authorities 
have used heathers, but they are few and far between. 

Charles Nelson 

URSULA BUCHAN, 2007. Garden people. Valerie Finnis and the golden age of 
gardening. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-51353-8. £16.95. 

Published some seven months after the death of Valerie Finnis (in October 
2006) this is an evocation of "a golden age for the 'plantsman' ... the 1950s 
and 1960s." Garden people is humourous, even a mischievously affectionate. 
Finnis (as she was always called by those who knew her very well) was a 
professional gardener, and a consummate plantsman. Quite late in her life, 
after almost three decades teaching at Waterperry Horticultural School for 
Women near Newbury in Oxfordshire, she married Sir David Scott. In 
addition, Finnis was an expert photographer acquiring her first good camera 
in 1955, During the next forty-odd years she photographed plants and 
plantsmen, accumulating some 50,000 272 in transparencies. So this book 
has at its heart Finnis's photographs of plants and people, a record of 
gardening from the 1950s into the 1990s. She was never interested in 
photographing gardens or part of gardens, as Ursula Buchan notes; there 
are usually people in her garden pictures, but she only ever took one image. 



62 



Of particular interest are a few heather plantsmen (a term covering women 
too): Mrs Amy Doncaster (1894-1995) [Calluna 'Amy'; Erica australis 'Amy 
Doncaster']; Randle Blair Cooke (1890-1973) [Erica cameo]; Jack Drake 
(c. 1909-1997) [Daboecia x scotica]; and Geoffrey Smith at work in Harlow Carr. 
There are two photos of Mrs Doncaster, one in Waterperry, and one in her own 
garden at Chandlers Ford posing beside a Magnolia stellata that is encircled 
with a pink-flowering winter heather mixed with white fritillaries. Alas, not 
many other heathers are in view, except in the unidentified garden of the 
enigmatic J. Brunskill (? somewhere in Ireland). 

Finnis's photographs are accompanied by informative captions and 
narrative text by Ursula Buchan. There are "potted", but not always accurate, 
biographies of the main characters by Dr Brent Elliott, and Anna Pavord's 
tribute to Finnis from The Independent. But the photographs are paramount, 
and they contain much that illuminates the last half of the last century. It is 
a charming confection of a book that I commend wholeheartedly. 

Charles Nelson 

C. JARVIS, 2007. Order out of chaos. Einnaean plant names and their types. The 
Linnean Society of London in association with the Natural History Museum, 
London. Pp xii, 1,017; illustrated. ISBN978-0-9506207-7-0. £80.00. 

Order out of chaos weighs around 3.2kg: it is a monumental book! It is also 
scholarly and painstaking. 

Linnaeus himself wrote: "If you do not know the names of things, the 
knowledge of them is lost too." By providing two-word Latin names - 
binomials like Erica cinerea - for almost 6,000 plants, he ensured knowledge 
about them was not lost. At the same time he established a method of naming 
organisms that is unlikely to be replaced. 

Despite its hefty weight, this is a rather readable book. Four chapters, in 
particular, contain essential, invaluable, historical and bibliographical details 
about Linnaeus's own major botanical publications (Chapter 3), the numerous 
literature sources that he used (Chapter 4), the herbarium specimens that he 
owned or consulted (Chapter 5), and the other botanists, collectors, 
correspondents and intermediaries who assisted him or informed his 
botanical studies (Chapter 6). There is also an excellent summary of his life 
and career. 

The culmination of a quarter of a century of research by a team, headed 
by Charlie Jar vis, Order out of chaos records the designated types for each of 



63 



Linnaeus's plant names. The type of a name is the "permanent, fixed reference 
point against which [its] correct identity ... can be checked", in perpetuity. A 
type can be a herbarium specimen, sometimes now in the Linnean Society in 
London, or it can be an illustration. 

Of course, there are numerous references to Erica in Order out of chaos, 
not just in the alphabetical listing of Linnaeus's names but also elsewhere. A 
word of warning - the index seems to have been prepared from an early 
proof copy and is not correct for many of the Erica references. 

A splendid book. I know I will refer to it frequently, and that is its purpose. 

Charles Nelson 



Recent publications 

§ indicates that an abstract of this paper, or sometimes the complete text, is available free of 
charge on the publication's website: these can be found using Google Scholar, with the author's 
name and a few key words from the title of the paper. 

ANDERTON, S., 2007. Setting the winter garden ablaze. The garden 132 (2): 87. 

Includes Erica x darleyensis 'Silberschmelze' and 'Furzey', photographed at the 

University Botanic Garden, Cambridge. 
ANONYMOUS, 2007. Compton Acres, Dorset Heather in the mist. Vie garden 132 (12): 836. 

"The Heather Garden peaks in winter", and is "undergoing a rolling programme 

of clearance and replanting (See Heathers 3: 62-63.) 
§ BANNISTER, P., 2007. A touch of frost? Cold hardiness of plants in the southern 
hemisphere. New Zealand journal of botany 45: 1-33. 

§ BRITTON, A. J. & FISHER, J. M., 2007. Interactive effects of nitrogen deposition, 
fire and grazing on diversity and composition of low-alpine prostrate Calluna vulgaris 
heathland. Journal of applied ecology 44: 125-135. 

BUCHAN, U., 2007. The best winter-flowering heaths. Daily telegraph 13 January: G8. 

Recommends: Erica cornea 'Springwood White', 'Myretoun Ruby', E. x darleyensis 

'White Perfection' and 'Arthur Johnson', and E. lusitanica; with pictures. 
DUNLOP, J., 2007. Cherrybank Gardens, Perth ... A view from ... Head Gardener. 
The garden 132(1): 62. 

Bell's National Heather collection, "the largest collection of heathers in the UK"! 

"The display of heathers is the key attractions." 
§ FAGUNDEZ, J. & IZCO, J., 2007. A new European heather: Erica lusitanica subsp. 
cantabrica subsp. nova (Ericaceae). Nordic journal of botany 24 (4): 389-394. 
HARRISON, H., 2007. Gardening at the northern edge. The English garden September 
2007: 53-56 [NB in North American issue, dated November 2007, pp 45-48.] 

About gardening in Shetland, featuring Frank Odie's "vibrant patchwork". 



64 



HITCHCOCK, A., 2007. The return of Erica verticillata. Veld & flora 93 (1): 14-17. 

More about the rescue of this extinct heather; mentions The Heather Society. 
§ LA MANTIA, T., GIAMIi, G v LA MELA VECA, D. S. & PASTA, S., 2007. The 
role of traditional Erica arborea L. management practices in maintaining northeastern 
Sicily's cultural landscape. Forest ecology & management 249 (1-2): 63- 70. 
§ MARQUEZ GARCIA, B., HIDALGO FERNANDEZ, P. J. & CORDOBA GARCIA, 
F., 2006. How does the plant Erica andevalensis survive despite highly elevated soil 
metal contamination? SET AC globe 7(1): 37-38. 

Available at http:/ / commuiiities.setac.net/ download /cat-TheGlobe/TheGlobe-0701- 

FulLpdf. 

§ NELSON, E. C, 2007. Richard Salisbury FLS and the discovery of elaiosomes in 
Erica. The Linnean 23 (1): 26-30. 

Available from the Linnean Society's website. 
NELSON, E. C, 2007. Erica x williamsii Druce (E. tetralix L. x vagans L.): a note on 
typification. Watsonia 26: 487-488. 

Specimen is Royal Cornwall Museum, Truro; collected by P. D. Williams on 

3 November 1911. 

NELSON, E. C, 2007. The original material of two Turkish species of Erica (Ericaceae) 
described and named by Richard Anthony Salisbury (1761-1829). Turkish journal of 
botany 31: 463-466. 

Typification of Erica spiculifolia and E. manipuliflora. 
NELSON, E. C, 2007. The Porters and their passion. The Irish garden 16 (2): 62-65. 

James Walker Porter and his family and his heathers. 
§ NELSON, E. C. & WULFF, E. M. T., 2007. Proposal to conserve the name 
Erica manipuliflora against E.forskalii (Ericaceae). Taxon 56 (3): 959-961. 

Initiation of formal procedure to ensure an unused name is not resurrected. 
§ PIZARRO DOMINGUEZ, J. M., 2007. About Erica x lazaroana Rivas Goday & 
Bellot (E. arborea Linnaeus x E. umbellata Linnaeus). Fontqueria 55 (53): 439- 442. 

A rather odd paper, and inaccurate. 
§ RODRIGUEZ, N., AMILS, R,, JIMENEZ-B ALLESTA, R. & RUFO, L., 2007. Heavy 
metal content in Erica andevalensis: an endemic plant from the extreme acidic 
environment of Tinto River and its soils. Arid land research & management 21: 51- 65. 
§ ROSE, R. J., 2007. The effects of hybridization on the small-scale variation in seed- 
bank composition of a rare plant species, Erica ciliaris L. Seed science research 17: 
201-210. 

THOROGOOD, C, 2007. Fen Bog. Our jewel on the Moors. Yorkshire wildlife 
Summer: 18-19. 

Fen Bog Nature Reserve, North York Moors: ling, cross-leaved heath and many 
other species. 

§ TURNAU, K., HENRIQUES, F. S., TERESA ANIELSKA, T., RENKER, C. & 
BUSCOT, F., 2007. Metal uptake and detoxification mechanisms in Erica andevalensis 
growing in a pyrite mine tailing. Environmental & experimental botany 61 (2): 117-123. 



65 



Supplement VIII (2008) to International register of heather names 
Registered cultivars 

Calluna vulgaris 
'Glasnost' 

Reg. no. C.2007:03: registered 15 October 2007 by Jos Flecken, Kerkrade, Holland. 
Multibracteate; flowers single, magenta (H14); end September-November. Foliage 
dark green. Broad, erect; to 30cm high, 40cm across in 4 years. Healthy, fine 
colour; late flowering. 

Seedling (clone 21) between 'Battle of Arnhem' and 'Allegro' (K. Kramer, c.1987); 
selected by Jos Flecken. 
R Ericultura 147: 7, 25. 
I Ericultura 147: 16-17. 

'Juliane' 

Reg. no. C.2006:08: registered 25 December 2006 by Kurt Kramer, Edewecht, Germany. 
Bud-flowering; calyx red; August-December. Foliage dark green. Upright. Late 
blooming with long durability. 

Deliberately bred seedling from 'Amethyst' and "97-18-15"; raised and selected 
by Kurt Kramer. 

'Julie Bradbury' 

Reg. no. C.2007:04: registered 26 October 2007 by Dr Colin Rogers, Tintwistle, Glossop, 

Derbyshire (see photograhs overleaf). 

Dr Rogers provided this account of 'Julie Bradbury'. 

This is a foundling with two remarkable features. Flowering is very early in 
the season, dying off before many of my "normal" Calluna come into flower; and 
spring tips develop into bright red branches until the appearance of buds signals 
a return to more normal dark green. Plants attain about 20cms tall x 40cms across 
after three years. 

I have called it 'Julie Bradbury' in recognition of the very helpful Brentwood 
Farm Nursery at Charlesworth. Unfortunately, the nursery no longer deals with 
heathers, having grown a couple of dozen cuttings for me, so it looks as though 
it will not be developed, the only plants being in my own garden and that of a 
neighbour. 

'Liliane' 

Reg. no. C.2006:09: registered 25 December 2006 by Kurt Kramer, Edewecht, Germany. 
Bud-flowering; calyx violet; August-December. Foliage dark green. Upright. Late 
blooming with long durability. 

Deliberately bred seedling from 'Amethyst' and "97-18-15"; raised and selected 
by Kurt Kramer. 



67 



'Nelly' 

Reg. no. C.2006:10: registered 25 December 2006 by Kurt Kramer, Edewecht, Germany. 
Replacement name for 'Momo' (reg. no. C.2005:09) which was rejected because 
it is also a registered trade-mark. 

R Blatt fiir Sortenwesen, Heft 11, Seite 281; Heathers 3: 69 (2006). 
'Pink Angie' 

Reg. no. C.2007:05: registered 24 November 2007 by J. van Leuven, Geldern, Germany. 
Bud-flowering; white; September-December. Foliage green. Broad, upright habit; 
to 50cm x 50cm in 4 years. 

Sport on 'Angie' found by Johannes van Leuven in October 2005 at Geldern. 
'Pink Madonna' 

Reg. no. C.2007:06: registered 24 November 2007 by J. van Leuven, Geldern, Germany. 
Bud-flowering; pink; August-December. Foliage green. Broad, upright habit; to 
50cm x 50cm in 4 years 

Sport on 'Madonna' found by Johannes van Leuven in October 2006 at Geldern. 
'Rote Schlesierperle' 

Reg. no. C.2007.01: registered 23 January 2007 by Frank Mittrach, Gorlitz, Germany. 
Bud-flowering: dark red; September-November. Foliage dark green. Upright. 
Outstanding contrast with white-budded, or yellow-foliage bud-flowering cultivars. 
Sport on 'Aphrodite' found by Frank Mittrach. 

'White Angie' 

Reg. no. C.2007:07: registered 24 November 2007 by J. van Leuven, Geldern, Germany. 
Bud-flowering; white; September-December. Foliage green. Broad, upright habit; 
to 50cm x 50cm across after 4 years. 

Sport on 'Angie' found by Johannes van Leuven in October 2005 at Geldern. 
'Zeta' 

Reg. no. C.2006:ll: registered 25 December 2006 by Kurt Kramer, Edewecht, Germany. 
No flowers produced. Foliage yellow-green. Upright. 

Deliberately bred seedling from "00-42-1" x "00-42-3"; selected and named by K. Kramer. 
'Zora' 

Reg. no. C.2006:12: registered 25 December 2006 by Kurt Kramer, Edewecht, Germany. 
No flowers produced. Foliage orange-green. Upright. 

Deliberately bred seedling from "00-42-1" x "00-42-2"; selected and named by K. Kramer. 



68 



Daboecia 

D. cantabrica f. blumii 'Valvinsan' 

Reg. no. D.2007:01: registered 4 September 2007 by by Jos Flecken, Kerkrade, Netherlands. 
Flowers held erect at anthesis, urn-shaped, 8-1 0mm diameter, H12 (heliotrope); 
calyx dark red/ green; July-October /November. Foliage green. Habit broad erect, 
after 5 years (pruned) 30cm x 30cm. The erect flowers are of a colour that is more 
attractive than Tink Blum'. 

A chance seedling found in 2001 in his garden, and selected by Jos Flecken. For a 
period this was grown by Halmanns, Kevelaer, Germany, but he stopped growing 
it (commercially not interesting); it will be available 2008/2009 from van Hoef, 
Barneveld, Netherlands. 
R Ericultura 147: 7. 
I Ericultura 147: 16-17. 

Eponym: named by Jos Flecken after his grandchildren: Valerie, Vincent 
and Sander Palmen. 

Erica 

E. cinerea 'Angela' 

Reg. no. E.2007:14: registered 6 September 2007 by Dick de Bruijn, Boskoop, Netherlands. 
Flowers ruby to beetroot, corolla H5/H9; calyx green to reddish brown; June- 
August/September. Foliage dark green. Broad erect habit; after 5 years 
(pruned) 20cm high, 25cm broad. Has same good characteristics as 
'Pentreath', but special colour. 

A sport from 'Pentreath' found by Dick de Bruijn in 1997 on his nursery 
(Boomkwekerij D.B.H. de Bruijn). 
R Ericultura 147: 7. 
I Ericultura 147: 16. 

Eponym: after the finder's wife. 

E. x darleyensis 'Bert' 

Reg. no. E.2007:12: registered 19 December 2007 by Peter Bingham, Gedney Hill, 

Spalding, Lincolnshire. 

Flowers pink; corolla H8 (pink), 6mm x 4mm; calyx Hll (deep lilac pink); November- 
March. Foliage mid green. Habit strong but compact; after 3 years 35cm tall, 60cm 
across. Differs from other cultivars in its large flowers and early flowering. 
Deliberately raised and selected seedling from Kingfisher Nursery hybridisation 
programme. 

Eponym: nickname of Richard Bingham, Peter's son. 



69 



E. x darleyensis 'Bing' 

Reg. no. E.2007:13: registered 19 December 2007 by Peter Bingham, Gedney Hill, 

Spalding, Lincolnshire. 

Flowers white; corolla 6mm x 4mm; calyx white; November-March. Foliage mid 

green. Habit strong but compact; after 3 years 35cm tall, 60cm across. Differs 

from other cultivars in its large flowers and early flowering. 

Deliberately raised and selected seedling from Kingfisher Nursery hybridisation 

programme. 

Eponym: nickname of Mark Bingham, Peter's son. 
E. x arendsiana 'Charnwood Pink' 

Reg. no. E. 2007:11: registered 1 August 2007 by Allen Hall, Nanpantan, 

Loughborough, Leicestershire. 

Pale pink flowers (H4 (RHS75D) lilac to H16 (RHS65C) shell pink). Foliage mid-green, 
young shoots discoloured; leaves in whorls of 4. Upright; to lm tall after 5 years. 
Seedling raised in 2000 by Kurt Kramer (Edewecht, Germany); this clone provided 
the holotype of E. x arendsiana (see Heathers 4: 59-60. 2007). 

Toponym: Charnwood is the Loughborough borough in which the Halls' garden 
is situated. The Borough of Charnwood is named after the ancient Charnwood 
Forest. The Oxford dictionary of English place names gives the mediaeval version of 
Charnwood as "Cernewoda" meaning "Wood in a rocky country". 

E. x darleyensis 'Katia' 

Reg. no. E.2007:10: registered 25 June 2007 by Olivier Pantin, SAPHO, Les Islettes 
49250 La Menitre, France, on behalf of Aurelie, Gaelle & Pierrick Bregeon. 

Corolla white; November- February. Foliage green. Bushy habit. "Possede des 

fleurs d'une taille 2 fois superieure a la variete d'origine." 

Sport on 'Silberschmelze' found at Vaud, Switzerland, in 1998 by Henri 

Bregeon. 

R Heathers 3: 74 (2006). 
E. vagans 'Keira' 

Reg. no. E.2007:02: registered 10 January 2007 by David Edge, Forest Edge Nurseries, 
Woodlands, Wimborne, Dorset. 

Flowers single with deep rose-pink corolla; calyx deep rose-pink; August-October. 

Foliage dark green. Bushy. Has larger bolder flowers and foliage than "type". 

Deliberately bred seedling (possibly involving 'Mrs D. F. Maxwell') raised by 

Kurt Kramer; selected and introduced by Forest Edge Nurseries; named by Miss 

Samantha Cordwell. 



70 



E. x darleyensis 'Lucie' 

Reg. no. E.2007:05; registered 5 June 2007by Olivier Pantin, SAPHO, Les Islettes, La Menitre, 
France, on behalf of les Pepinieres Renault, Domaine du Rocher, Gorron, France. 

"Fleurs rouge (type 'Kramer's Rote'), Decembre-Avril; fleur dont la taille est 

double de celle de 'Kramer's Rote'. Variete plus tardive que 'Kramer's Rote' de 

quelques semaines. Vert fonce; etale." 

A sport on 'Kramer's Rote' at Pepinieres Renault, in 1997. 

R Heathers 3: 74 (2006). 

E. x williamsii 'Phantom' 

Reg. no. E.2007:09 registered on 12 June 2007 by David Wilson, Chilliwack, British 
Columbia, Canada. 

Low-growing shrub to 0.3m across, ±0.15m tall after 4 years; foliage light green; 
young shoots yellow. Flowers single; July-September; calyx lobes green, unequal, 
fused only at base; corolla white, 4-lobed; lobes with very sparse hairs in bud; 
stamens 8, short; filaments ±2mm long, free or variously and irregularly fused 
in groups of 2-3; anthers small, thecae pale red when young turning pale tan. 
Deliberately bred seedling raised in 1986 from crosses made the year before; 
E. tetralix 'Alba Mollis' x E. vagans 'Lyonesse'. 
R Heathers 4: 58 (2007); D. McClintock, Heathers of the Lizard (1998). 
Fantasy name. 

E. x arendsiana 'Ronsdorf ' 

Reg. no. E. 2007:04; registered 17 May 2007 by Kurt Kramer, Edewecht, Germany. 
Has darker, lavender (RHS75A, H3) flowers, than 'Charnwood Pink'; habit more 
compact than 'Charnwood Pink'; foliage green. 
Dark-flowered clone (number 1), raised by Kurt Kramer in 2000. 
R Heathers 4: 59-60 (2007). 

Toponym; Georg Arends, of Wuppertal Ronsdorf, the renowned German 
plant breeder and nurseryman was the first to raise the hybrid. 

E. x stuartii "Stuart's Original' 

Reg. no. E.2007:03; registered 17 March 2007 by the Registrar. 
Original clone of E. x stuartii. 

Replacement name for 'Stuartii'; note that 'Charles Stuart' was formally rejected 
(Yearbook of The Heather Society 1998: 72) and so cannot be used. 



71 



E. australis 'Trisha' 

Reg. no. E.2007.01; registered 10 January 2007 by David Edge, Forest Edge 
Nurseries, Woodlands, Wimborne, Dorset. 




Flower semi-double, with 4-6(-9) lobes; corolla deep lilac; calyx deep lilac, with 
<9 unequal, free sepals; bract and bracteoles stained dark red; March-May. Foliage 
"sage green". Bushy, well-branched, erect. The corolla may have a "flap" forming 
an extra lobe or a petaloid sepal fused to the outside. 

Deliberately bred seedling, raised by Kurt Kramer; selected by David Edge (Forest 
Edge Nurseries, Dorset). 

Eponym: after Trisha Hardy, manageress at Forest Edge Nurseries. 
Note: on The Heather Society's 2007 "Society life in pictures" CD-ROM a 
photograph of this is mis-labelled "Ashford's Blush" which is not established 
and should not be used. 



72 



Other names (not registered) new to the International register of 
heather names in 2007 

Calluna vulgaris 

Beauty Sisters: trade designation for a pair of cultivars. 

Vorratsliste (6 Marz 2007) [http:/ / www.schlangen-jungpflanzen.de/ 

fileadmin / user_upload / Dokumente / katalog.pdf] . 
'Corita': flowers "chartreuse". 

Being propagated in Canada by Qualitree Propagators, Rosedale, British Columbia. 

Qualitree Propagators Inc availability list for 27-Aug-07: 1 (pdf file downloaded 

1 September 2007). 
'Dark Beauty IF: flowers "dark pink". 

Being propagated in Canada by Qualitree Propagators, Rosedale, British Columbia. 

Qualitree Propagators Inc availability list for 27-Aug-07: 1 (pdf file downloaded 

1 September 2007). 
'Gelbe Maassen': rejected, correct name 'Cottswood Gold'. 

According to Jos Flecken (email 1 September 2007), Gerd Maassen (Straelen. 

Germany) uses 'Cottswood Gold ' in trios of Beauty Ladies, so his licencees call it 

'Gelbe Maassen'. 

Heidesortiment zur Heideschau 2005 Gartnerei Felgentrager, Leipzig 

(www.felgentraeger.com pdf downloaded 1 September 2007); Vorratsliste 

(6 Marz 2007) [http:/ / www.schlangen-jungpflanzen.de/fileadmin/ 

user_upload / Dokumente / katalog.pdf] . 
'Hebbe': Heathers 4: 16 (2007). 
'Jeanette': bud-flowering; white. 

Being propagated in Canada by Qualitree Propagators, Rosedale, British Columbia. 

Qualitree Propagators Inc availability list for 27-Aug-07: 1 (pdf file 

downloaded 1 September 2007). 
'Josepha': flowers "rosa", September-October; height 35cm. 

Listed by Gartnerei Felgentrager, Leipzig: Heidesortiment zur Heideschau 2005 

Gartnerei Felgentrager, Leipzig (www.felgentraeger.com pdf downloaded 

1 September 2007). 

'Karminfeuer': flowers "lilarosa", end of August-September (quite early): foliage 
turns golden yellow with carmine over bright orange throughout the winter. 
Chance seedling from 'Boskoop', raised and selected at Soltauer Baumschulen 
Robert Nielsen, Soltau, Germany. 

http: / / www.baumschule-nielsen.de [accessed 22 December 2007]. 
'Kinlochuel': typographic error for 'Kinlochruel' 

Heidesortiment zur Heideschau 2005 Gartnerei Felgentrager, Leipzig 

(www.felgentraeger.com pdf downloaded 1 September 2007). 
'Landebroog Pride': typographic error for 'Llanbedrog Pride'. 

L. Denkewitz, Heidegarten: 324 (1987). 



73 



'Miefiner': rejected, correct name 'Eckart MieSner'. 

Listed by Heinz Schlangen (Saterland / Scharrel, Germany); Vorratsliste (6 Marz 

2007) [http:/ / www.schlangen-jungpflanzen.de/fileadmin/user_upload/ 

Dokumente / katalog.pdf] . 
'Newfoundland': flowers purple. 

Plant Availability List-Spring 2000 (Hancock Woodland Nurseries, Mississauga, 

Ontario, Canada), [http: / / www.hancockwoodlands.ca /plantlist.html#Broadleaf 

accessed 21 December 2007]. 
'Rote Mullion'; niedrig kompakt, hellrot (September-October), to 25 cm tall. 

Listed by Gartengestaltung Thomas Witte (Bispingen, Germany). 

www.heidegaerten.de (accessed 1 September 2007). 
'Scholjes Moritz': breitbuschig mittelhoch Brute: magentarot gefullt; September-October. 

Vorrats- und Preisliste fur Jungpflanzen 2006: 4 (pdf available on-line). 

[ http: / / www.baumschule-krebs.de/Produkte/Jungpflanzen2006.pdf; 

accessed 20 October 2006] 
'Seestern': bright yellow branches spread flat like the arms of a starfish; turning at 

the beginning of the winter to bright orange. Flowers bright lilac, and due to rich 

colour of the leaves, the blooms stand out. 

Seedling from 'Boskoop', raised and selected at Soltauer Baumschulen Robert 
Nielsen, Soltau, Germany. 

[http: / / www.baumschule-nielsen.de accessed 22 December 2007]. 
'Svenja': flowers "Rot". 

Listed by Heinz Schlangen (Saterland /Scharrel, Germany) as ®. Vorratsliste 

(6 Marz 2007) [http://www.schlangen-jungpflanzen.de/fileadmin/ 

user_upload / Dokumente / katalog.pdf] . 
Twin Girls: trade designation for a pair of plants "zwei Blutenfarben auf einer pflanze". 

Heidesortiment zur Heideschau 2005 Gartnerei Felgentrager, Leipzig 

(www.felgentraeger.com pdf downloaded 1 September 2007). 
'Veronique IF: flowers white. 

Listed by Heinz Schlangen (Saterland / Scharrel, Germany) as ®. Vorratsliste (6 

Marz 2007) [http:/ / www.schlangen-jungpflanzen.de/fileadmin/ 

user_upload / Dokumente / katalog.pdf] . 
'Wynanda': bud-flowering; purple. 

Being propagated in Canada by Qualitree Propagators, Rosedale, British Columbia. 

Qualitree Propagators Inc availability list for 27-Aug-07: 1 (pdf file 

downloaded 1 September 2007). 

Daboecia 

D. cantabrica 'Praegerie': typographic error. 

www.heidegaerten.de (pdf) (accessed 1 December 2007). 
D. cantabrica 'Violetta': "aufrecht, violett-rosa" (June-October); to 35 cm tall. 

Listed by Gartengestaltung Thomas Witte (Bispingen, Germany). 

www.heidegaerten.de (accessed 1 December 2007); www.ppp-index.de. 
D. x scotica 'Silvers wells': typographic error. 

B. de la Rochefoucauld, La bruyere: 67 (1979, 1st edition). 



74 



Erica dabici Crantz: invalid (ICBN) 

Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums, Wien 68: 155 (1965). 

Erica 
E. arborea 

— 'Alberta Gold': typographic error: http://www.heidegaerten.de/ 
heide_pflanzen.php?heidepflanzen=Alberta_Gold,_Baumheide [accessed 
1 September 2007] 

E. carnea 

— 'Chamaleon': "Farbe rosa" (ruby H5); February-March. Foliage golden copper 
("gelbkupferferbenes", changes several times in a year, hence the name). 

Jos Flecken bought it from Gruenberg Nursery (Coswig, Germany); they bought 
it at an auction mart. Listed by Gartnerei Felgentrager, Leipzig. Heidesortiment 
zur Heideschau 2005 Gartnerei Felgentrager, Leipzig; www.felgentraeger.com 
pdf [downloaded 1 September 2007] 

— 'Kathy': rejected (under ICNCP 2004. Art 19.25; may be orthographic error for 
'Kathi'): "breit aufrecht, weiss" (February-April), to 25cm tall. 
www.heidegaerten.de [accessed 1 September 2007] 

— 'Marzenschnee': white, late. 

Listed by Heinz Schlangen (Saterland / Scharrel, Germany); http:/ / 
www.schlangen-jungpflanzen.de / index. php?id=29&L=l . 

— 'Rosa Diamant': rejected (under ICNCP 2004. Art 19.24); "flowers abundantly 
with H7 rose pink flowers, compact habit"; "aufrecht breit, rosa" (February- 
April), to 25cm tall. 

Listed by Heinz Schlangen (Saterland / Scharrel, Germany); http: / / 
www.schlangen-jungpflanzen.de / index. php?id=29&L=l ; 
www.heidegaerten.de [accessed 1 September 2007] 
E. x darleyensis 

— 'Citzlers Rosa': rejected (under ICNCP 2004. Art 19.24). 

Being propagated in Canada by Qualitree Propagators Inc , Rosedale, BC; origin 
unknown but possibly connected with Gartenbau Citzler GbR, Giitersloh, 
Germany; Qualitree Propagators Inc website [accessed 1 September 2007] 

— 'Eriginia': presumed error for E. erigena. 

Listed by Heinz Schlangen (Saterland / Scharrel, Germany); http: / / 
www.schlangen-jungpflanzen.de/ fileadmin/ user_upload / Dokumente / 
katalog.pdf. 

— 'Kraemers Red': orthographic error 

Qualitree Propagators Inc availability list for 27-Aug-07: 1 [pdf file downloaded 
1 September 2007] 
E. x griffithsii 

— 'Ashley Gold': typographic error: Bulletin of The Heather Society 5 (15): 14 (1998). 
E. spiculifolia 

— 'Bruckenthalia': rejected (under ICNCP 2004. Art 19.24). 
Heidesortiment zur Heideschau 2005 Gartnerei Felgentrager, Leipzig, 
Germany; www.felgentraeger.com [pdf downloaded 1 September 2007] 



THE HEATHER SOCIETY 



Chairman: (email: stow.limmer@btinternet.com) 

Mr A.J. Stow: Widmour, Limmer Lane, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, HP12 4QR. 

Secretary and Slide Librarian: (email: jean.julian@btinternet.com) 
Mrs J. Julian: Matchams, Main Street, Askham Richard, Y023 3PT. 

Treasurer: (email: pjoyner@supanet.com) 

Mr. P. Joyner: 84 Kinross Road, Rushington Manor, Totton, Southampton, SO40 9BN. 

Editor of Bulletin: (email: everettbannut@zetnet.co.uk) 
Mrs D. Everett: The Bannut, Bringsty, WR6 5TA. 

Administrator & Registrar: (email: admin@heathersociety.org.uk) 

Dr. E.C. Nelson: Tippitiwitchet Cottage, Hall Road, Outwell, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, 
PE14 8PE 



All material for the 2009 issue of the Yearbook of Hie Heather Society 
must reach the Editor not later than 31 October 2008. 
Articles may be submitted by e-mail. 

Editor of Yearbook 
Dr. E. Charles Nelson 
Tippitiwitchet Cottage, Hall Road, Outwell 
Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, PE14 8PE 
Tel: 01945 774 077 
e-mail: admin@heathersociety.org.uk 



Design & typesetting: David Small. 



DATES OF PUBLICATION OF YEARBOOKS 
Heathers 1: 10 March 2004 
Heathers 2: 26 February 2005 
Heathers 3: 1 March 2006 

Heathers 4: 3 August 2007 



CONTENTS 



Klokkelieng (H. Berg) y 
Yell for heathers. 1 
A heather hybridizer's Yorkshire garden. 9 
Erica maderensis in England. 17 
Visiting the African Queen - with the assistance 
of satellites. 26 
The creation of a public heather garden: Cot- 
tage Grove Community Hospital, Oregon, 29 
U.S.A. 

Old painting instrumental in rediscovery of a 39 
Cape Erica species. 

R. Canpvan, E. Petterssen, G. Osti, S. Kay & E. C. Nelson (editor) 44 
Northern Spain, July 2007. 53 
Hendrieke Berg's hand-coloured copper engravings. 

55 

Proceedings of The Heather Society 2007 
Arnold Stow Stepping down. 

Judy Wiksten Pembrokeshire, ahem, is Wales! (Annual Gathering 
and 35 th Annual Conference, Haverfordwest, 
Pembrokeshire, 7-10 September 2007) 



Frontispiece 
Frank Odie 
John Griffiths 
Allen Hall 
Susie Kay 

Ella Mav Wulff 



E. G.-H. Oliver 



BOOK REVIEWS & RECENT PUBLICATIONS 
Supplement to International register of heather name, 



56 

61 
65 



VIII (2008) 



Website: www.heathersociety.org